Adaððus aidoniâs

Gaulish

Aidonâ is the sacred fire, the hearth personified in the home or wherever the flame is present. For Bessus Nouiogalation Aidonâ is our Hearth Deuos.
Your hearth is anyplace your flame is, if this is a fireplace or a candle, your hearth is there.

Adaððus aidoniâs (Hearth rite) is central to Bessus Nouiogalation. Designed to be easy to follow with minimal steps. All members of Bessus Nouiogalation should do this rite at least once a week as this helps with Dêuocariâ (piety), Luxtiâ (duty), and Decos (honor). This strengthens one’s bonds within our Touta and the Dêuoi. As Aidonâ is present in all our homes, she connects us all.

Below is our Adaððus aidoniâs with an invocation to Galatos, our Toutatis. You can swap the invocations for other Dêuoi, and Regentiâ. A list of our invocations can be found here, and you can also deepen your devotion with our daily structure here.

You can also download our PDF of this rite, which also includes invocations for our daily/weekly structure with our Toutâdêuoi.

Glanosâgon (Purification)

  • Wash hands and say: Glanolamâs (Glan-oh-lam-ahs) “Clean hands”
  • Swipe your forehead and say:  Glanobritus (Glan-oh-bree-tus) “Clean mind”
  • Swipe down the face with both hands and say: Glananation (Glan-ah-nat-ee-on) “Clean soul” (This is based on the idea of the soul residing in the head.)

Louceton (Lighting)

Light the Dagilâ(s) candle(s). The following can be said in either Nouiogalaticos or in your common tongue. 

Oibelumî sinaidû Aidoniâs
(Oy-bel-oo-me sin-ai-doo Ai-don-ee-ahs)
“I light this flame of Aidonâ”.

Demarcation (fixing the boundary) of our space happens with circumambulating (to circle on foot, especially ritualistically). Make a sunwise circle motion over the Dagilâ three times if you can walk around the Dagilâ, do that. The reason for the three is to represent the three realms of Drus ( AlbiosBitus, and Dubnos). Why do this? Rites are an act of cosmogony, and our movement is a symbolic representation of this.
As you do this say: 

Aidona, ei mediâ io belît,
areuedaunâ tessin eri cammû andegenti. in aidû belîtû, ligâtion.

(Ai-dona, ey med-ee-ah ee-o bel-eat, are-eh-way-dau-nah tess-in air-ee cam-oo an-de-gen-tee. In ai-doo bel-ee-too, lee-gah-tee-on)
“Aidonâ you are the center that illuminates, bringing warmth since the beginning of creation. In your illuminating flame, you bring connection”.

Brâtun te eri beletû inedon caddon, an uediâs mou clutetor.
(Brah-ton tay air-ee bel-e-too in-ed-on cad-on, an oo-wed-ee-ahs moo clue-tet-or)
“Thank you for illuminating this sacred place, May my prayers be heard”.

Give an offering of incense or dried herbs to the flame. The flame and the Dagilâ represents Aidonâ.

Uediâ (Invocation)

At this point, you are invoking the recipient of the ritual. It is fitting to say kind things or describe the recipient(s) when you do this. We will offer an invocation to Galatos below.

Prayer Position
Why a Prayer Position, Our words are not the only part of communicating with the Deuoi. Our position of how we hold ourselves helps us communicate to the Deuoi; it also allows us to focus our thoughts, which affects our emotions. We start to communicate thoughts and feelings. All this helps to build a ritual structure.
Standing with elbows close to your side, your hand outstretched, and your palms up.

Uediâ Galatû Toutatî
(Invocation for the Toutais Galatos)

Uediomosnîs Galaton Toutaton
(Oo-wed-ee-oh-mos / Oo-wed-ee-oo-me Ga-la-ton Tow-ta-ton)
“We invoke the Toutatis Galatos”
Latis Toutiâs
(La-tis tow-tee-yas)
“Hero of the people”
Nertos urittosergios
(Ner-tos urr-ee-to-ser-gee-oh)
“Mighty against disease”
Uernos Anson
(Wer-nos an-son)
“Our guardian”
Anegestûnis etic rodîestû tancon
(An-e-guess-too-nis et-ic ro-dee-ess-too tan-kon)
“You protect us and give us peace”
Rodâmî addatus etic bratun tê
(Roe-da-me add-at-us et-ick brat-oon tay)
“I give offering and thanks to you”

Addatus (Offering)

Arcîumî ratobo Galatîs
(I ask for blessings to the Galatîs)

After the offering, take a few moments to kneel, bow, or sit and commune with the recipient(s)

Incoron (Closing)
Slanon te
(Slan-on tay)
“Cheer to you”
Bratûn te
(Brat-oon tay)
“Thanks to you”
Molâmî Galaton Toutaton
“Moe-law-me Galaton Toutaton
(I praise you Toutatis Galatos)
Iâiumî in tancê
(Ee-eye-oo-me in tan-kay)
“I go in peace”

Bratûn te
(Brat-oon tay)
“Thanks to you”
Molâmî Aidonâ
(Moe-law-me eye-don-ah)
“I praise you Aidonâ
Iâiumî in tancê
(Ee-eye-oo-me in tan-kay)
“I go in peace”

Put out the flame by covering it or pinching it.

Coligny Calendar Based Daily Rituals

Amongst many different customs there is the notion of the daily offering. These are generally small offerings, said with a humble prayer, invocation, etc. The advantage of doing such rites is that it makes dêuocariâ (piety) a habit.

To quote Aristotle:

Excellence, then, being of these two kinds, intellectual and moral, intellectual excellence owes its birth and growth mainly to instruction, and so requires time and experience, while moral excellence is the result of habit or custom.” – written in ‘Nicomachean Ethics, Book II’

While it wouldn’t be correct to say that we developed the idea from this quote, it is quite fitting and the premise agreeable. When we can make our Îanoi (virtues) habits, we are more likely to stick to them. Doing so is incredibly important, as it means we are being good community members, and being right with ourselves. Furthermore, they are actions which are pleasing to the Dêuoi (worshipped beings).

In order to do this, to make the îanos (virtue) of dêuocariâ (piety) a habit, we devised a working system. We asked ourselves, “What kind of setup of daily rites may have made sense to a citizen of a Toutâ (nation, tribe)?”

In doing so, we looked to the most well known piece of Gaulish timekeeping — the Coligny Calendar, which you can read about here. From it, we were able to devise a methodology for daily adaððoues (rituals). We also aimed to keep the structure reasonably simple. It has the happily coincidental byproduct of helping one remember the current Coligny Calendar date.

For members of Bessus Nouiogalation (BNG), the full and consistent upkeep is only expected of those of the Dugilon tier. However, it is of course encouraged for all to attempt. For folks who aren’t, such a structure may be useful in developing one of your — or your group’s — own.

This structure applies to all months but there will be one difference between 29 and 30 day months that will be discussed later on. As this is a BNG setup, it should come as no surprise that each of our Toutâdeuoi (deities of a group/tribe/nation) are represented with a day each. For more on our Toutâdeuoi, as well as uediâs (invocations) for each, a treatise on them is available here.

The Breakdown

We use the Coligny Calendar app, designed by Ucetion.

Without further ado, from the beginning of the month, our structure is as follows:

Day:

1 – Ogmios (Ancestor of the Gauls)

2 – Toutatis (Guardian of the Toutâ)

3 – Suleuiâs (Good Guides)

4 – Materês (Knowers of fate, life givers)

5 – Regentiâ (ancestors)

6 – Dêuos of your choice.

7 – A “free space”. Any of the Dêuoi, or none. Though the former is strongly recommended. Also useful if there is a previous day that one missed.

This cycle repeats for days 8-14. Thus we arrive at the middle of the month.

15 – Carnonos (Way opener, guardian between worlds)

After which, the cycle of the first 14 days repeats. Which covers days 16-29. This means on day 30, another offering is given to Carnonos. However, if the month is only 29 days, Carnonos (unless one chose to give addatus, that is, offering to him on day 7, 14, 22, or 29) only gets one offering in that month.

This isn’t done as an intended slight against revered Carnonos, of course. In fact, we may recall that 30 day months which are marked matis (good, favourable, complete) and anmatis which is the opposite of matis. That space wasn’t made for the ever honourable, wise, and great Carnonos may be part of what makes 29 day months anmatis indeed!

A Few Potential Questions

All said, this schematic may raise questions. Such as: “What about Bituatîs (land beings)?” To which it can be said that generally these adaððoues (rites) are done indoors. Though indeed it could be possible to offer to them indoors, it is generally encouraged to meet them in their domains. This, and taking into account that the Gauls knew of cooler winters, and many places of very cold ones. As such, we didn’t want to put it on anyone to make such a trip in inclement weather when it may be unsafe.

Another salient question is “What if one wishes to do more than the amount of offerings in the structure? Or gives worship to more Dêuoi than the structure accommodates?” To which, it’s worth mentioning that what we’ve done here is merely provide a baseline. One can always do more. Those who do undoubtedly will easily be able to figure out a pattern that works for them. Whether it be multiple adaððoues in the same day, or simply offering to different Dêuoi on the two more open days.

Lastly, in the last two days of the seven day structure, one doesn’t have to stick to the same Dêuoi every week. It could be different Dêuoi each time. The free spots allow for either a set aside space for devotional relations, or a chance to build new relationships. Suiting both those with more and less experience in Galatibessus (Gaulish Custom).

Conclusion

The purpose is to build a habit of deuocariâ (piety). To this end, we introduce this Gaulish inspired method to carry out daily offerings, using a uniquely Gaulish calendar to do it. In doing so, it’s a way to both bolster our relationships with the Dêuoi, and strengthen Bessus (custom). This is a way to get started.

A simple offering suffices for these daily rites. One suggested item to offer would be incense. It’s generally accessible, affordable, and generally considered a good offering. Another recommendation would be to work these adaððoues (rituals) into one’s daily routine. When one wakes up, before one goes to bed, or after a bath or shower. Tying them to something else one does daily is very much helpful.

Earlier in this article, we provided both background and Uediâs (invocations) for Toutâdeuoi. For a selection of more widespread Dêuoi, we provide some Uediâs here. With all of this, one has all of the information they need to start. We hope that within, we have provided a methodology that allows one to make a habit of piety.

May the Dêuoi look favourably upon the attempt, and may they give blessings to you all.

** A special thanks to one of our Sentiiâ, Rianorix, for her questions. And to all members of BNG who helped give shape to the idea of the Coligny Calendar based adaððoues.

Uediâs (Invocations)

The main language used is Nouiogalaticos, a constructed revival based Gaulish dialect. And they will be translated to English, or if one uses a translator, whatever language they like. Though one doesn’t have to speak Nouiogalaticos to perform rituals, it’s nice to add a few words of it to give the rites a more Gaulish feel. Again, it’s not a “must” but it’s fair to assume one probably wants to use at least some.

The Nouiogalaticos will be shown first, and the English will be in parentheses (). So, if you need to translate into something other than English, only translate what is in parentheses ().

Also these letters “Д and “ð” make a “ts” sound.

One who has been in Gaulish custom for some time will notice a few of the same words (in the Eponâ and Taranis ones), and some of the structure (the three lines of praise) of the invocations are like those of Segomâros Widugeni. Which can be seen on his site and in his book, ‘Ancient Fire’. His invocations are a big influence on our own.

The following are invocations you can use in simple rituals to call on Dêuoi and give offerings to them. Thus participating in Sumatreiâ (good relationship) with them. Now there are over 300 Gaulish deities, and this isn’t going to be an exhaustive list. However, we can provide some here.

What we will do here is break the invocations into two halves. In the first half of the invocation one of course invoke the recipient of the ritual, they then describe the recipient with a few epithets. As well as a statement about them and what they may do in lore. We then give them offering and thanks.

The second half is what we might request of them, and the closing of the ritual. As we may ask different things of them, we have prepared several possible second halves. This allows you to know what you are asking for if you choose to do so in Gaulish. In any other language, we trust you can find the words.

Without further ado… Cintusimîs Uediânon (First Halves of the Invocations)



Uediâ Abnobî
(Invocation for Abnobâ)


Uediomos/Uediumii Abnobân
(We/I invoke Abnobâ)

Donâ allation
(Lady of the wilds)

Riganâ selgiâs
(Queen of the hunt)

Arpos noxtos
(Bow and arrow of the night)


Conateregiâ Argiiâs, gninomos gussus adiantî
(With the rising of the moon, we learn the value of effort)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Aisous
(Invocation for Aisus)


Uediomos/Uediumî Aisun
(We/I invoke Aisus)

Nemetorix
(King of the Nemeton)

Tigernos aidous
(Lord of the Fire)

Delgaunos Drous
(Keeper of Drus)

Das uiððus contoutî, caddocerdâs iton
(You give wisdom to the people, your sacred arts)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addauts] [Offering]

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Uediâ Alaunî
(Invocation for Alaunâ)


Uediomos/Uediumî Alaunan
(We/I invoke Alaunâ)

Cintus in leucê
(First in the light)

Dêuâ Ratî
(Dêuâ of generosity)

Bertiâ ituos
(Bearer of food)

Donâ areuari, rodâi nouiorasson conateregî sonnî
(Lady before the dawn, you give new hope with the rising sun)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Artionê
(Invocation for Artiû
)


Uediomos/Uediumî Artionen
(We/I invoke Artiû)

Riganâ ueltîs
(Queen of the wild)

Matîr nerticos
(Mighty mother)

Boudi uasanti
(Triumph of the spring)

Matîr arti, auetâ londâ, uedestûnis diuobin uellûs
(Mother of bears, wild protectress, you guide us to better days)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Auetî
(Invocation for Auetâ)


Uediomos/Uediumî Auetân
(We/I invoke Auetâ)

Uiððudonâ caddâ
(Holy Wise Woman)

Caradataunâ
(She who gives care)

Beraunâ agranion
(Bearer of the fruits)

Sistai areabonî, matîr andecarâ aiui, boudilanâ condatouibi
(You stand by the river, ever gentle mother, generous with gifts)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Belinû
(Invocation for Belinos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Belinon
(We/I invoke Belinos)

Bertos leuci
(Bearer of light)

Cingetos nemê
(Warrior in the sky)

Deuorbutos sergionon
(Vanquisher of diseases)

Dêuos berxtos, latis eporedios, esi londos urittoclamoi ollâ
(Shining Dêuos, horse riding hero, you are fierce against all illnesses)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Brigindonâ
(Invocation for Brigindû
)


Uediomos/Uediumî Brigindunen
(We/I invoke Brigindû)

Morênâ catoues
(Maiden of war)

Uernâ dunassiâs
(Guardian of the fortress)

Riganâ boudês
(Queen of victory)

Tenos uer bannî, gaisos etic cladios danacâ, boudi in lamî
(Fire upon the peak, spear and sword gifted, victory in hand)


Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Camulû
(Invocation for Camulos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Camulon
(We/I invoke Camulos)

Rix catuos
(King of battle)

Cladios boudicos
(Victorious sword)

Cingetos bouarios
(Noble warrior)

Baros molti, steros etic sontios, uices dagû olli
(Fury of the ram, steadfast and true, you fight for the good of all)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Carnonû
(Invocation for Carnonos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Carnonon
(We/I invoke Carnonos)

Uernos mantali
(Warden of the roads)

Entar bitoues
(Between worlds)

Anextlios Ecuon
(He Who Protects the Herds)

Antû Dubni sistâi, anegestû uritto namantobi etic uedes anatin
(At the border of Dubnos you stand, you protect against enemies and guide souls)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Catuboduî
(Invocation for Catuboduâ)


Uediomos/Uediumî Catuboduan
(We/I invoke Catuboduâ)

Messuaunâ galliâs
(Measurer of valor)

Barnaunâ argonon
(Judge of the worthy)

Riganâ Cingeti
(Queen of warriors)

Ueretrû iton, areuedestû argos comarion uellin
(Upon your wings, you carry the worthy to a better place)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Ðironî
(Invocation for Sironâ)


Uediomos/Uediumî Ðironan
(We/I invoke Sironâ)

Cintuðirâ nemê
(First star in the sky)

Matîr uoberi
(Mother of the springs)

Liagis lobri
(Healer of the sick)

Cintus extemellû, delgestû tudauon diion uellon
(First from the darkness, you hold the promise of better days)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering] 

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Uediâ Entarabou
(Invocation for Entarabus)


Uediomos/Uediiumi Entarabun
(We/I invoke Entarabus)

Uernos nantunon
(Guardian of the valleys)

Delgaunos Condation
(Keeper of the confluence)

Mapos iriiaciton
(Son of the fertile plains)

Ondê caddoialon, delges ueiâ raton
(In that sacred meeting place, you hold the power of blessings)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratun te
(We give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Eponî
(Invocation
for Eponâ)


Uediomos/Uediumî Eponan
(We/I invoke Eponâ)

Riganâ uercariâs
(Queen of the fertile land)

Deuâ ulatês
(Dêuâ of the sovereign land)

Riganâ messous
(Queen of the Harvest)

Eporediâ entar bitoues, rodâi boudin ollon
(Rider between worlds, you give bounty to all)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn tê
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Gobanû
(Invocation for Gobanos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Gobanon
(We/I invoke Gobannos)

Alaunos bituos
(Wanderer of the world)

Ordos prii
(Hammer of creating)

Tigernos teni
(Master of the fire)

Nertolamâs etic ordomâros, rodâi crittâ galletiûs nouiûs
(Mighty hands and great hammer, you give shape to new possibilities)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Grannû
(Invocation for Grannos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Grannon
(We/I invoke Grannos)

Delgaunos onobîias
(Holder of the water of life)

Tenos in dubrê
(Fire in the water)

Caniuolcos nerticos
(Mighty valiant hero)

Amarcolitanus, Liagimâros etic delgaunos runâs elus
(He with the far piercing sight, great healer and keeper of secrets)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Lugou
(Invocation for Lugus)


Uediomos/Uediumî Lugun
(We/I invoke Lugus)

Tigernos cerdânon
(Master of the arts)

Rix corii
(King of the warband)

Latis caili
(Hero of destiny)

Gaisos in lamî, uissus in britû, creddâ olli in te
(Spear in hand, knowledge in mind, faith of all in you)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Maponû
(Invocation to Maponos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Maponon
(We/I invoke Maponos)

Bardos aneuetos
(Inspired Bardos)

Mapað leuci
(Child of Light)

Delgaunos brixtânon
(Keeper of Magics)

Leucomâros etic nertoiouantus, ueiâ etic biuos ollaiui
(Great light and a strong youth, energy and life eternal)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Matrêbo
(Invocation for the Mothers)


Uediomos/Uediumî Materês
(We/I invoke the Materês)

Biuotus rodamaunâs
(Life givers)

Noibos maiamos
(Most holy)

Uissuaunâs tonceton
(Knowers of fates)

In geni, biuotû, etic maruê, uednis etic messus ollon
(In birth, life, and death, guiding and measuring us all)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn suos
(We/I give offering and thanks to you all)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Nantosueltî
(Invocation for Nantosueltâ)

Uediomos/Uediumî Nantosueltian
(We/I invoke Nantosueltâ)

Matîr marâ
(Great mother)

Delgaunâ uenios
(Keeper of pleasures)

Riganâ lanobitous
(Queen of the world of plenty)

Magloi buiont ûros corinon iton, rodarcon suanciton
(The fields become green with your touch, a welcome sight)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Nemetonî
(Invocation for Nemetonâ)

Uediomos/Uediumî Nemetonan
(We/I invoke Nemetonâ)

Donâ anton
(Lady of the Borders)

Uernâ caddî
(Guardian of the Sacred)

Delgaunâ Marâ
(The Great Keeper)

Rodâi caddiâ uentân, etic aneges urittoduscaxslâ
(You give sacredness to the offering space, and you protect against bad spirits)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratun te
(We give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus – Offering] 

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Uediâ Ogmiû
(Invocation for Ogmios)

Uediomos/Uediumî Ogmion
(We/I invoke Ogmios)

Cintuatîr Galation
(First father of the Galatîs)

Mârolabâtis
(Great speaker)

Belolatis
(Mighty hero)

Excenu bebanastû, uxelliâ Galation, rodîssestûnis anuan anson
(From far you came, pride of the Galatîs, you gave us our name)

Rodîmos/Rodîumî adbertâ etic bratûn tê
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Rosmertî
(Invocation for Rosmertâ)

Uediomos/Uediumî Rosmertan
(We/I invoke Rosmertâ)

Riganâ corii
(Queen of the warband)

Rataunâ meniâs
(Bestower of wealth)

Matîr uolugon
(Sustaining mother)

Marauetâ, raies brigon etic suraton colargotuð
(Great protectress, you bestow power and good fortune with generosity)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Rudiobou
(Invocation for Rudiobus)


Uediomos/Uediumî Rudiobun
(We/I invoke Rudiobus)

Cingetomâros
(Great warrior)

Soldurios couîros
(Loyal defender)

Epoð boudicos
(Victorious knight)

Dercâ exuerarduiâs, carantos exobnos toutiâs
(The eyes from upon the hill, fearless friend of the people)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Sucellû
(Invocation for Sucellos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Sucellon
(We/I invoke Sucellos)

Atîr Raton
(Generous father)

Medos candosocci
(Caretaker of the vines/shoots)

Uernos bitoues
(Watcher of realms)

Deluâunos textiâs magliâs, randestû textâs iton cotoutin
(Shaper of the gifts of the land, you share your gifts with the people)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Suleuiâbo
(Invocation for the Suleuiâs)


Uediomos/Uediumî Suleuiâs
(We/I invoke the Suleuiâs)

Uernâs uissoues
(Wise guardians)

Delgaunâs rextion
(Keepers of right)

Aminâs uîrisamâs
(Truest friends)

Esue leucos îani uedetesuîs ollon
(You all are the light of virtue, you guide us all)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn suos
(We/I give offering and thanks to you all)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Taranê
(Invocation for Taranis
)

Uediomos/Uediumî Taranin
(We/I invoke Taranis)

Nemorix
(Lord of the Sky)

Dêuos Rotî
(Dêuos of the Wheel)

Delgaunos Uîridi
(Keeper of Truth)

Delgestû loucetion etic anegestû ollon
(You hold the lightning and you protect all)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Uesunnî
(Invocation for Uesunnâ)

Uediomos/Uediumî Uesunna
(We invoke Uesunnâ)

Bertaunâ Dagocobî
(Bringer of good luck)

Donâ Ratî
(Lady of grace)

Suanextlaunâ
(Good protectress)

Rodâs sutonceton etic beres catubrixtâs
(You grant good fate and bear the battle magics)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratun te
(We give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering] 

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Allosimi Uediânon (Second half of the invocations)

We have provided invocations for some deities. Within, we covered most of a simple invocation. If you have a request during such a rite, this is the time to include it. For those doing rituals in a language other than Gaulish, it’s okay to ask in your own words. Though you should develop a formula.

We will include some in Gaulish, and will translate the formula used in the Gaulish invocations. We will give words for things one may request, and for whom.

Arcimâs (Requests)

Arcîmos/Arcîumî _________

(We/I ask for _________)

All of these requests are in dative case, meaning an indirect object. In this case, the dative will imply asking for something.

slanû – health

anextlû – protection

calonnî – resolve

gallî – courage, confidence

uiridû – justice

ratû – grace, blessing

ratobo – blessings

sedû – peace

agnê – guidance

nertû – strength

boudê – victory

ianobitoû – prosperity

An example:

Arcîmos/Arcîumî slanû

(We/I ask for health)

Now for whom you may ask for blessings. In Gaulish, we will use the accusative case. That means referring to the direct object of a sentence. So, who we are asking the blessing or request to be directed to. If it is for yourself, then the line above is good enough. But what about for someone else?

Some examples of people or groups to ask for in Gaulish are as follows:

uenian – family

carantâs – friends

contreban –  city, town, village, community

mapaten anson/imon – child (of ours/mine)

mapatâs anson/imon – children (of ours/mine)

regenion anson/imon – parent (of ours/mine)

regeniâ anson/imon – parents (of ours/mine)

Galatîs – fellow Galatîs

Nouiogalatîs – fellow Nouiogalatîs

ollon – all people

tluxtiûs – the poor, needy

lobrûs – the sick

scasstâ – the hurt, injured

tegesicâ – the workers

bitun – the world

A final example for the full sentence:

Arcîmos/Arcîumî sedû bitun

(We/I ask for peace to the world)

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Clauiiâ (Closing)

When there is only one recipient, these are the lines to use in Gaulish:

Slanon te

(Cheer to you)

Bratûn te

(Thanks to you)

Molâmos te/Molâmî te

(We/I praise you)

When there are multiple recipients only the last line changes. Instead of tû, you use suos.

The final line altogether to close is:

Iâmos/Iâiumî in sedê

(We/I go in peace)

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Cintudricâ Uediâs (Example of an invocation)

This is what a full invocation may look like:

Uediumî Eponan
(I invoke Eponâ)

Riganâ uercariâs
(Queen of the fertile land)

Deuâ ulatês
(Goddess of the sovereign land)

Riganâ messous
(Queen of the Harvest)

Eporediâ entar bitoues, rodâi boudin ollon
(Rider between worlds, you give bounty to all)

Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

Arcîumî ratobo Galatîs
(I ask for blessings to the Galatîs)

Slanon te
(Cheer to you)

Bratûn te
(Thanks to you)

Molâmî Eponan
(I praise you Eponâ)

Iâiumî in tancê
(I go in peace)


That was a sample ritual. And this is a way we have developed to do invocations. The complexity is certainly present if one does them in Gaulish, but over time, it gets easier as with any other language.

Remember, that you don’t have to do the entire invocation in Gaulish if you don’t feel comfortable. And you can always do them with some Gaulish, and some of your usual language. It takes a little effort to do invocations in rituals right. However, we know that you can do it!

Together, we can bring back worship of our Dêuoi and can build a new Galatibessus (Gaulish Custom). And we invite you all to join us.

Suauelos tê! (Good winds to you!)

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Dêuoi (Worshipped Beings)

The Dêuoi are numerous. In Gaul, there were easily over 300, when counting the places in which the Gaulish language was spoken. That is just what we know, or assume. There are likely many we do not know, and many more Dêuoi than we yet know — inside and outside of what was Gaul. Therefore, it’s impossible to do any real treatise on Them, as that would take volumes. This is not meant to be treated as an academic treatise, but simply as the result of experience in Bessus Nouiogalation (Custom of the New Galatîs).

Even a treatise on the known Dêuoi of Gaulish toutâs (nations) would at least fill a book. That would be quite lengthy for a single article! The Dêuoi we will briefly discuss fill two criteria, either partially or entirely:

  • Historically widely worshipped by the Gauls, and named in Gaulish.
  • Widely worshipped by Galatîs today. (After all, we are speaking of a new Gaulish custom.)

An extensive treatise will not be necessary because usually when one comes to Galatîbessus (Gaulish Custom), it is because they have an interest in or experience with a Dêuos or Dêuâ (fem. form of Dêuos). Also, it should be known that the Dêuoi — Gaulish or otherwise, are not limited to things like “function”. Just as a person may be known for doing something, doesn’t mean that it’s all they know or are capable of doing, the same is the case for Dêuoi.

Bessus Nouiogalation doesn’t deal in reductionism. That is, the idea that many different names are those of the same Dêuos, unless they are very linguistically close. A matter of different spelling or dialect. Though it’s indeed possible that a Dêuos may have many names, unless provided with concrete evidence it will not be stated here that one name is a byname for another whether we personally believe that or not.

This does not mean comparative evidence cannot help illuminate and buttress the understanding of a Dêuos either. It can and often does. However, noting likenesses is not the same thing as saying two Dêuoi are literally the same. By respecting these distinctions, we can “play it safe”. If two names are in reference to the same being, no foul is committed. If they are not, proper respect has still been given.

Here is a brief list of Dêuoi in Bessus Nouiogalation, along with a little bit of background. Facts and conjecture included. Either from ourselves or what we have heard from our interactions with fellow Galatîs:


Abnobâ

Abnobâ’s name is thought to have to do with rivers, but the etymology is unclear. There are inscriptions of her being named with Roman Diana. This allows us to deduce that Abnobâ governs hunting, forests, and the night. These inscriptions were often found in the Black Forest region in what is now Germany.

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Aisus

Also spelled Esus. His name is thought to mean “sacred, fire”. He has been likened to both Mars and Mercury. He is most well known for the depiction of Him pruning a tree with what may be either an axe or a billhook. Near Him is Tarvos Trigaranos (Bull and Three Cranes). The cranes perhaps a death omen. Theories as to what this means varies, but our suspicion is that Aisus is maintaining a sacred grove. Remember that such groves were carefully curated places.

By maintaining the grove, sacrifice, as bulls were commonly a sacrificial animal, was possible. So whether or not He kills Tarvos Trigaranos is irrelevant. He at least makes the sacrifice possible. He is also invoked in an invocation relating to the curing of a troubled throat. Suggesting that He may also be involved in magic.

He shares his skills with humanity. What Aisus is possibly doing is teaching us the knowledge of sacrifice and how to perform it. Equally important is that He is teaching us how to maintain sacred spaces. As again, such spaces were carefully cultivated and their locations deliberate.

His invocation on a tablet requesting a cure suggests that the Gaulish idea of magic was not one that separated the practicioner from the Dêuoi. Instead reinforcing that we are connected with Them and our actions are best when in line with what They teach.

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Artiû

Her name comes from the word Artos, meaning “bear”. So immediately we can see that bears play an obvious role in Her cult and She is depicted with them. The form we have of Her name is Artio, which is in the dative case, yielding perhaps Artius or Artiû. We also have from Switzerland, Artioni, which is in dative, meaning in Gaulish Her name would be Artiû. Which is what we use.

With Her connection to bears we have to try to extrapolate what that means for how to perceive Her, as we have less information and no likenesses to foreign deities for which to compare Her. The first thing we could easily notice is that a mother bear is both strong and protective. So, it is fair to assume She is a protectress. Next, we can see a very close relation to the cycle of the seasons and wager that She has a role in that.

Moreover, a mother bear does not merely protect Her cubs, but teaches them. This could mean that a Dêuâ of bears could teach much about survival on the land. That like a mother bear to her cubs, Artiû gives wisdom to Her worshippers.

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Auetâ

Auetâ governs midwives, fertility and nursing. It can also be assumed that she governs freshwaters. There is also an association with dogs, which could, in piecing together with the rest, be a connotation of healing. As is noted by Miranda Green in Gods of the Celts. In the same book, there’s also the idea that she is also a protector of children. This seems in step with the other information we have.

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Belinos

There are a few contending interpretations for what his name means, but normally is thought to mean something like “Powerful”. He was likened by the Romans to Apollo. This can provide some insight into his nature. He is associated with sunlight (but not a Dêuos of the sun), lighit, horses (clay ones were offered to him), and war. It was once said that he was seen defending the city of Aquileia from a seige.

He is also associated with hot springs, tying him into healing. Altogether, He sounds like a very ancient Dêuos. And it’s possible that he could have been mythologically associated with pulling the sun across the sky in a horse drawn chariot, based on his traits and the clay horse offerings. His worship was widespread, apparently starting out in Eastern Gaul to Noricum, and spreading west and north, to Britain.

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Brigindû

Her name is thought to mean “the High One”, high as in elevated like a hilltop or a mountain. This is where forts were often constructed, which can reasonably lead to a conclusion that she is a warrior Dêuâ. Being depicted with spears and in a helm certainly strengthens the idea. Being likened to Minerva, who is likened to Athena, the patron deity of Athens, who is associated with war and strategy among other things paints a deeper picture. She was also likened to Victoria.

In Her, we see a protective Dêuâ of warfare. In Britain, she was the tutelary Dêuâ of the Brigantes tribe. In Gaul, she was depicted with a spear, a “globe of victory”, as well as with a gorgon’s head on her chest. So we can see deep mythological elements that makes one easily associate her with the arts of war.

We have no direct gnosis to offer of Brigindû in reference to who she is. As a firm and fierce protectress is how we see her as well. We don’t see a connection to Irish Brighid (save for linguistically), but we also have no desire to come across as invalidating the views of those who comparatively illuminate Brigindû through her. After all, deities cannot be put into neat little boxes. It is simply that we do not make the connection.

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Camulos

His name is thought to mean something like “champion”. He is thought to be a warrior and inscriptions and placenames are related to him are found in Britain (Camulodunum), Belgium, Germany, and one in Romania. He was named along Roman Mars. As such, he is thought to be a warrior Dêuos. Something that has caught on regarding Camulos is that according to Mackillop (and Segomâros WIdugeni) he is ram horned.

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Carnonos

Carnonos is suspected to be His Gaulish name, Cernunnos being a later form used in the Gallo-Roman era. Either way, most will know who you are talking about. The etymology isn’t certain, but is commonly thought to mean “Horned One”.

He is often depicted with a ram horned serpent, and sometimes with animals like bulls, of course deer, and occasionally a rat. He is also depicted with a torc or torcs, the famous neck rings associated with the Gauls among other peoples. Also being depicted on the Pillar of the Boatmen, this leads to a linking of Him to commerce and trade. In Celtiberia, depictions of Him as being like Janus links Him to being a Dêuos of Bidirectionality.

As we can expect, this paints a very interesting picture of a Dêuos who was linked to many things, and as Dêuoi are, very complex. We see chthonic and liminal aspects. Riches of Dubnos (the Underworld), but also of a kind of intermediary, travel and perhaps a kind of psychopomp, one who guides souls of the dead.

A gnosis we can offer is that of Artogenos Uindoguððus (ð is a “ts” sound in these parts). He suspects that Carnonos is a river father. Rivers are associated with trade, wealth, and travel. They are also associated with depths, Dubnos, the chthonic, infernal. Water often is. So we can see liminal and chthonic properties at work. Bulls and deer being on either side of Him reflect a boundary of the “civilized” and the “wilds”. An important distinction at a time where being in the settlement was the safest place to be and when the wilds really were that. They still are in some places, but not to the extent they were in the Iron Age.

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Catuboduâ

Her name means “Battle Crow”, also Cathuboduâ. As there isn’t thought to be a “th” sound in Gaulish, the “h” is probably silent and so we generally don’t use it. Her name says a lot about that with which She is involved. War. There is a belief that crows were thought to choose who was to be slain on the field of battle. Presumably because they consume those who die.

However, as there are other cultures with beliefs that those who die were carried up to a to the afterlife by crows or ravens. It is in some ways, as those who fall in battle are celebrated in many cultures, not a completely bad thing to have been chosen. Since if one assumes they will die and provided they don’t flee are probably going to fight ferociously.

So, She is indeed not only a Dêuâ accustomed to death, She is involved in the process. Carrying the fallen on Her wings to a good afterlife.

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Ðironâ

Her name has to do with the word Ðirâ, (Ð = ts) meaning “star”. She is depicted with eggs, snakes, and associated with healing springs. She is also depicted wearing a star shaped diadem, and wearing a long gown. The snake and eggs bring to mind a connection to the Greek deity Hygeia.

Here we have a Dêuâ of healing, of stars, of springs and wells. She is also depicted once holding grains and fruits. Temples to Her were also built around springs and wells. So, we have her associated with snakes, eggs, wells, springs, stars, and fertility.

Our gnosis is that the star connection coupled with snakes, eggs, and wells have to do with the liminal period of spring. Wells fill, and springs are more active this time of year. Snakes emerge from their burrows, and eggs are hatching at this time. As this is the time of that emergence, we suspect if a star were related to her, it wouldn’t actually be a star, but the planet Venus. Of course, other planets look like stars to the naked eye in the sky.

Though not directly in the shape of a star, Venus does move through five points in the sky, and is visible mainly in the evening and morning, a liminal time of day, and spring is a liminal time of year. We also realize that’s a fairly generous gnosis, so take from it what you will.

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Entarabus

His name means “between rivers”. He’s depicted with a wolf skin over his shoulder, and due to his name we can assume he’s involved with valleys and perhaps boundaries. In BNG, he’s thought to be the son of Sucellos and Nantosueltâ. One temple dedicated to him was built over a spring, converted from what had temporarily became a temple to Mithras, according to Helmut Birkhan in ‘Kelten. Versuch einer Gesamtdarstellung ihrer Kultur’.

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Eponâ

Her name is certainly related to the Gaulish word for horse, which is Epos. So, it’s clear that She is a Dêuâ of horses. However, She is much more complicated than that. Horses hold connotations of sovereignty, and Otherworldly travel. Perhaps because of their ability to traverse the land. However, horses are not the only things depicted with Her.

Grains, and later cornucopiae, are also featured with Her. This suggests that She is associated with harvests and the fruits of the earth. As for the horses, She was depicted riding them side saddled. Which doesn’t suggest a Dêuâ of horse riding, but She was in fact worshipped by cavalry. This carries notions of being a Dêuâ of war.

She was also depicted with a key, suggesting an inclination toward domestic functions as well. Here we have a complex, multi faceted Dêuâ. Of horses, war, harvest, and the home. A couple of interesting offerings to Her in the past were roses, and a cauldron. Which furthers Her domestic associations.

With many burials we also see remains of horses or of horse drawn vehicles. This means She was possibly associated with the function of a psychopomp. This also suggests, if related to cavalry, that She may have also been one to lead a spectral ride, perhaps similar to a Wild Hunt. This usually takes place in the winter in most cultures.

When Gaul fell, Eponâ occupied a unique position of being the subject of Roman worship as well, with a feast day of 18 December, Eponalia. It seems that worship of Her is sometimes related to the time of the middle of winter, which back them would have been thought of as near the winter solstice. It is possible, at least as far as my gnosis goes, that She also gives birth to a child around this time. As midwinter times seem to be a time of celebrating Her, that child may have some kind of solar relation.

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Gobannos

His name is related to a word for “blacksmith”. As such, He’s a Dêuos of smithing, crafting, and of smiths. Known from a zinc tablet in Switzerland, which notes of Him as one who travels, it implies that He perhaps learned, and at least distributed and used His skills widely. Smiths, especially in the past shaped pieces of metal into things people needed and wanted. Putting Him among Dêuoi who helped shape society and culture as much as He shaped metal.

A piece of lore in BNG is that He fashions a spear for Lugus to rescue His beloved Rosmertâ. As such having His îuos (holiday) Cerdalitus, just before Cintumessus when Lugus succeeds in that rescue. Done thanks to the assistance of Gobannos.

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Grannos

His name is thought to mean “bearded”, and he is associated with hot springs. An epithet for him historically (at Monthelon) is Amarcolitanus meaning something like “far (reaching) sight”. Like his sight, the reach of his worship was quite far. Governing hot springs, it is safe to say that he is a healer.

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Lugus

There are a few potential meanings for His name. Lugus is thought to be the mysterious “Gaulish Mercury”. This is for the reason that Caesar states that Mercury was the most revered being, of course not literally Mercury but a Dêuos likened to Him. He said that this being was a patron of trade, protector of travelers and the inventor of arts.

This lead scholars to liken Lugus to Irish Lugh, who is said to be skilled in all arts. Lugus is not Lugh, but They both seem to share this trait and linguistic relation. There are also other Dêuoi likened to Mercury, so Lugus is not the only one, but it seems fair to assume Him among Them.

His symbology includes spears, ravens, roosters, bags of coin, and being depicted with three faces. Here we can interpret that He is proud and skilled in war, familiar with death, looking in multiple directions, probably in guard, and a patron of wealth and prosperity.

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Maponos

His name has to do with the word Mapos, which means “son, young boy”. In Gallo-Roman times, He was likened to Apollo. So we see a connection to youthfulness, and a solar connection. Though not a sun Dêuos. He is depicted with a harp on a relief in Northern Britain which is another interesting Apollo connection. With His connection not only to light and youthfulness, but also to music. An Apollo connection could also suggest a connection to healing.

In Gaul, He is invoked on a magic tablet, a defixione, in which the words of a spell are inscribed upon it. Suggesting that He has connections to magic as well. So here we have a Dêuos associated with sunlight, healing, music, and magic. Gnosis-wise, we suspect He was born in the winter and as Eponâ is also venerated at the time, maybe She is His mother? This would certainly be a break from Maponos’s Welsh cognate of Mabon who is the son of Modron, in Gaulish Matrona.

It is theorized by some that Oengus Mac Og is related in a way to Maponos, His mother is Boann, so we see at least some variation in the mothers of deities of this kind. A supporting argument we offer for this gnosis is that horses have been known to have a solar connection, and if Eponâ is venerated near a solar event, that event may be related to Maponos, who by comparison to Apollo has solar traits.

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Materês

Their names meaning “Mothers”, based on an early Gallo-Greek inscription. Related, a Matronâ worshipped as the Dêuâ of the Marne River in France. It is unknown if She is a singular form of these Mother Dêuâs or a different Dêuâ entirely, but to be safe, we will assume She is distinct. As all of these Mother Dêuâs are distinct from one another. Often tied into very specific tribes, but also one or many nations. So we have a very broad spectrum when it comes to these Dêuâs.

Materês were worshipped from Spain to Germany, and from the Netherlands to Northern Italy, also in Britain. The first inscriptions we see are from Northern Italy in the 1st century CE. Does this mean this is when this worship started or where? Though this was a Romanised part of Gaul, worship of Them seems spread along the lines of Gaul, Britain, and along the Rhine. As opposed to being common in Rome.

Romans in these places worshipped Them too, of course, but it’s not really known if they had anything to do with Their worship at its foundation. We just know it was spread all over Gaul. They governed many things, often fertility, rivers, and families. However, so much more. They were involved in war, and many other things. They were depicted with fruits, grains, children, dogs, with hair covered and uncovered. As well as with pigs. Perhaps receiving sacrifice.

Of note, They were in some theories thought to govern fate. Which, for those looking, it could shed some light on a Gaulish version of the women of fates and destinies. Like the Scandinavian Norns, Roman Parcæ, and Greek Fates. In Bessus Nouiogalation, this is an important function of our Materês.

Their cultus was widespread and for all manner of purpose. They governed all manner of things.

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Nantosueltâ

Her name has a few possible meanings. Xavier Delamarre gives “sun warmed valley”. She has been depicted holding a house on a pole, with beehives, and with a crow or raven, under a depiction of the sun. Which show suggestions of a few things within which She may be involved. Such as prosperity granted to us by Her, who holds the gifts of the earth.

The house gives a couple of possibilities to us. It could either be some kind bird house, or meant to be an actual house showing perhaps Her supporting the home, perhaps from below, giving Her a chthonic quality. The carrion bird, a raven or crow perhaps relating to death. This gives the impression of a Dêuâ involved with both prosperity in life, and machinations of death.

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Nemetonâ

Her name has to do with nemetons, which are of course places of worship, and famously the sacred groves in which the Ancient Gauls worshipped. In BNG she is invoked at the setup of a uentâ, or space in which rites are performed. She was named for Victoria, in Eisenberg, in what is now Germany. Popular with the Treveri people, one of whom even put up an altar to her while in Britain.

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Ogmios

The meaning of His name is uncertain. Xavier Delamarre gives “guide, path”, and somewhere else (memory fails) “conductor” was suggested. These have to do with the belief that He is one who leads souls to the afterlife. Allegedly by binding them with His speech. It is said that those who went with Him did so gladly. It is also said that Ogmios was likened to Hercules. However, that it is the strength of His words that held the greatest power.

He is also, according to Jean-Louis Brunaux in ‘Les Gaulois: vérités et légendes’ speaks of Ogmios, being likened to Hercules as being an ancestor of the Gauls as a whole. This happens around the time of interaction with the Greeks which led to a rapid increase in infrastructure. A time when the Gauls begin to see themselves as Gauls. Though regional identities were usually stronger. (A factor in their tragic downfall.)

He was depicted as an older man, with sun darkened skin. Jean-Loius Brunaux adds that He was said to have had in His retinue people of many nations. This has led to that being gnosis, if not what literally was the case, fleshing out an otherwise not as well known Dêuos. Along with this, from Ralph Hausseler in ‘From Tomb to Temple: the Role of Hero Cults in Local Religion in Gaul and Britain During the Iron Age and Roman Period’, he mentions Ogmios as ancestor of the Gauls. This gives Ogmios a preeminent position among Dêuoi in BNG.

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Rosmertâ

Her name is thought to mean “Great Provider”. She is depicted with fruits, a cornucopia, as well as with coins and an offering bowl. It is clear that She is a Dêuâ of the wealth of the land. The abundance of the fruits of harvest and wealth perhaps that those fruits can provide.

Interestingly, She is depicted alongside Mercury, and this leads many to consider Her to be paired with Lugus. This is a reasonable assumption, and with Lugus being a Dêuos of skills and wealth, Rosmertâ is a source for those things by holding the wealth of the land, from which all things come.

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Rudiobus

His name likely has to do with the colour red. The one inscription we have of him is on a bronze horse and so we have come to see him as a Dêuos of war and cavalry. But also of knights and horse training. This inscription was found at Neuvy-En-Sullia, in the territory of the Carnutians.

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Sucellos

His name is thought to mean either “kind” or “good striker”. He is depicted with a big mallet and sometimes a cup. He is thought to be associated at the least with wine growing and agriculture. He has also been depicted wearing a wolf pelt.

He was compared to Silvanus, who is associated with woods and forests. Sucellos is sometimes depicted like Etruscan Charon, and is also seen accompanied by a dog. If we take a look at the comparison with Charon, we see chthonic associations. As Charon ferried souls to the world of the dead.

His large mallet also suggests He is associated with boundaries, as the mallet looks like something that drives in fenceposts. Also giving a strong sense of agriculture and maintenance of the fields and farms. Thus also a shaper of the gifts of the earth. He is also depicted alongside Nantosueltâ.

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Suleuiâ(s)

She is spoken of in either triplicates or singularly. Her name is thought to mean “good guide”. Compared to the Roman Junones (feminine guardian spirits), and sometimes the Matronæ, or Materês — of Gaulish, Germanic, and Roman fame. Though sometimes, the Matres and Suleuiâs were invoked together. So we can see that the boundary between the two kinds of Dêuâs or spirits was not always clear.

Suleuiâ or Suleuiâs are Dêuâs of people, but in an important functional context — places, especially homes. Now it may have in the past been tribal or regional Suleuiâs that were more relevant. In a modern context, one is likely the only Galatis in the area. As such, the Suleuiâ is a protector, of one’s home and of one’s person.

Something to think about when we light our uandalâs (candles) to the guardians of our homes or selves. As They are a very special kind of spirit. Also, as groups have Suleuiâs, Bessus Nouiogalation does as well.

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Taranis

Here, with Taranis (in dedication of all the work here that Nellos does) there is more known. Or at least ideas of Him are a bit easier to flesh out in comparison to other Dêuoi. His name means “Thunder” or “Thunderer”. Which is agreed upon by every expert that at least we are aware. His name underlines with what He is most associated: thunder, storms, lightning, rain.

He is often outright depicted wielding either a literal thunderbolt, especially in Gallo-Roman times, or a club or staff. Both of which are striking weapons. This aligns well with lightning. In Britain, a Dêuos holding a crooked club with a wheel beside Him is depicted. Bringing us to His most enigmatic symbol: the wheel. Wheels are depicted in His place more than any image of Him. Wheels are found with or alongside inscriptions bearing His name, so we can safely attribute wheels as a symbol of Him.

The club, staff, weapon is a more clearly understood symbol. The wheel is more mysterious. There are many theories. Some are as simple as an analogy of “rolling thunder”. Others as deep as the rotation of the skies, which puts Him up to be a Dêuos of the sky, and not just storms. With that association, He can be assumed to also be associated with the general upholding of truth and order. On Jupiter columns (He is most associated with Jupiter, surprise) an uncommon depiction of Jupiter on horseback, which Jupiter is not depicted with, are often found along the Rhine. Which ran through Gaulish lands. Under these Jupiters is a serpent or monster being trodden upon.

It is quite common for thunder deities to be slayers of serpents and monsters. Taranis appears to be no exception. So, we have a great sky and thunder Dêuos who upholds truth and slays cosmic enemies. However, He isn’t all about death and destruction. After all, He is slaying things that are a threat. Storms also bring rain, which gives life and feeds the land. Lightning is beneficial to soil as well. And so it is fair to see Him as just as much a Dêuos who gives life. With winds that come with storms, breath.

We offer the interwoven facts and gnosis here. It also warrants mentioning that wheels have been seen on urns. This means He probably has a function in death. Also, wielding lightning comes with fire, which both purifies and sanctifies. As with other Dêuoi, we see a great and complex Dêuos.

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Toutatis

Taken to mean “of the people”. Like Suleuiâs, Toutatîs seem to be a kind of Dêuos. The difference is that there is no record of Them being invoked in triplicate or multiples, but it seems to be the thought that there was one per tribe, that each one had a Toutatis. A Toutatis is considered a protector of the tribe, and were normally likened with the Roman Mars.

With this being the case, and though we stress caution when making assumptions — it would not be surprising to me if many Mars likened Gaulish war Dêuoi couldn’t easily fall under this category. Such as Camulos, Caturix, Rudianos, Smertrios, etc. These Dêuoi are of course distinct and are not “different faces of one” or anything of the kind. They are known for being Dêuoi of war, but also of healing and fertility.

As any group could have a Toutatis, Bessus Nouiogalation does as well. Our Toutatis is Galatos, in our bessus, a son of Ogmios.

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Uesunnâ

Her name is thought to mean “She who is good/worthy”. She’s shown with a cornucopia, and is named for the Roman Dea Tutela, on an inscription found in Périgueux. With the cornucopia, we associate her with grace and a good toncnaman (destiny, fate, that which is sworn). In BNG we sometimes say “Uesunnâ cantitê!”, which approximates “Good luck!”.


All of this just scratches the surface. There are many more Dêuoi that were worshipped by the Gauls. Many more worshipped by Galatîs today. However, as there are many places to find information, and many conclusions to be drawn as well as new gnosis appearing to folks constantly, we felt a brief introduction was appropriate.

We find it best to not say too much so that you can find your own way through the infinite mysteries that are the Dêuoi, because no one person — ourselves or anyone else can ever tell you all that can be known about Them.

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Cingos Ammanês (Calendar)

Gaulish Polytheism, Coligny Calendar

The Sequanni, or Coligny Calendar (used interchangeably) is a parapegma, that is, a bronze calendar with peg holes in it that marked each day. It was discovered in 1897 in Coligny, Ain, France. It is thought to date to the 2nd century CE. Almost everything about the calendar is hotly debated. Some theories are more popular than others, and perhaps we will never all agree. However, there are some context clues from what little can be reasonably assumed about the calendar, and a workable model will be presented.

With that said, let’s explore a little on the matters of timekeeping that we know. Caesar mentions that the Gaulish people considered the day to start at sundown. This isn’t really unusual, the Jewish people reckon the same with their own calendar, for example. Thus the reason their sabbaths start on Friday night. Considering that where they lived at the time of the Gauls were some distance away from the Gauls, starting the day at sundown was not at all uncommon in the ancient world.

Caesar didn’t likely gain anything from making mention of this, and so it is likely a truthful observation. The history of issues (to put it lightly) between Gauls and Romans were certainly not because of their differing approaches to calendars. With that said, we can safely wager that the day begins at sunset.

All the Gauls assert that they are descended from the god Dis, and say that this tradition has been handed down by the Druids. For that reason they compute the divisions of every season, not by the number of days, but of nights; they keep birthdays and the beginnings of months and years in such an order that the day follows the night.

Julius Caesar in The Gallic Wars states (Caesar, DBG 6.18)

We also have a mention of timekeeping in Gaul by Pliny the Elder.

The mistletoe, however, is but rarely found upon the robur; and when found, is gathered with rites replete with religious awe. This is done more particularly on the fifth day of the moon, the day which is the beginning of their months and years, as also of their ages, which, with them, are but thirty years. This day they select because the moon, though not yet in the middle of her course, has already considerable power and influence; and they call her by a name which signifies, in their language, the all-healing.

Pliny Natural History 16.95

Over The Moons

The months have either 30 or 29 days. 30 day months are noted Matis (MAT), the 29 day months Anmatis (ANM). In this respect, we cannot help but notice that the Attic Calendar, used by ancient Athenians, marks months as “full and “hollow”. It is worth noting that Greek culture was prestigious to the Gauls, especially before their fall to the Romans. Sequanni territory was not very far from the Greek colony of Massalia, and it wouldn’t be surprising if the Greeks had some influence on the Sequanni Calendar. This isn’t to say that the ancient Gauls weren’t already using a lunisolar calendar as it were. Which the Sequanni Calendar certainly is.

A lunisolar calendar attempts to reconcile the lunar months with the solar year. This is a relatively old style of timekeeping. Though purely lunar calendars like the Islamic Calendar do exist. Then, of course, the modern calendar, which gets its start in Rome, who weren’t about lunar months, apparently. They were more interested in the solar year. Now, back to Gaul, where the Sun and Moon must agree, at least somewhat. Most of the time, the Sequanni Calendar has twelve months, the first and third year in a five year cycle have thirteen. The first month is Samonios, something that is not debated.

The months start at the first quarter moon. This is an easy moon phase to spot, and it accents the binary fortnight division explained earlier. This centers the full and new moons in each fortnight, half month.

We offer “Areambicatû”, or “The years ahead of Ambicatus” as a term to date years. Starting roughly during the reign of Ambicatus, a legendary king. Before those years, Senamman “Ancient Time”. As opposed to BCE and CE or BC and AD. The app we use (from Ucetion) provides the current year. This work (from Helen Mckay) helps with notations.

The Months

At the most basic, and we’ll get to intercalary months in a minute, the months are as such, with rough Gregorian equivalents:

  • Samonios (May-June)
  • Dumannios (June-July)
  • Riuros (July-August)
  • Anagantios (August-September)
  • Ogronios (September-October)
  • Cutios (October-November)
  • Giamonios (November-December)
  • Simiuisonna (December-January)
  • Equos (January-February)
  • Elembiuos (February-March)
  • Edrinios (March-April)
  • Cantlos (April-May)

These are your basic twelve months in order. So, what about those intercalary months? We are less certain. Quimonios (the end of the first segment of the calendar as “QVIMON”) and Rantaranos  (the “r” is speculative, but “ANTARAN” is read from the fifth line of the 32nd month) are the two intercalary months inserted to even out a five year cycle. Before Samonios and Giamonios respectively.

It’s hard to say what many of the months mean. The foundation of most versions is what they believe the month of Samonios means.  Whether it means “summer” or the end of summer. The latter of which is what leads some to believe Samonios is cognate to Samhain. Some believe Samonios means something like “assembly, gathering”.

However, the frame of reference we use to build a conclusion is not Samonios, but Giamonios. Which has less controversy around it, and is agreed upon to mean something related to “winter”. To our knowledge, no one claims it means “winter’s end”. A poor choice then for a summer month. Buttressed by the infix -on- that is seen in many deity names taken to mean “great, divine”.

Therefore, here the calendar starts in the summer. This is not unheard of, as the Attic Calendar, one of many in Ancient Greece, also started in the summer. The Greeks being a big influence on the Gauls makes this essentially unsurprising.

Usage

As stated before, the month starts at the first quarter moon. This means the third denotes the halfway point of the month. We see on the calendar “ATENOUX”, meaning “renewal, return”. Also, appearing in a half circle, like the first quarter fits the binary division of the month. “Light” and “Dark” halves.

Matis months have 30 days. Anmatis months have 29 days. The first half month is always 15 days, the second is either 15 or 14 days. The month of Equos alternates in days. Can be 30 or 29. This is of course an attempt to keep the calendar in a lunisolar harmony.

The Coligny Calendar operates in 5 year cycles. This is regardless of the 25, 30, or proposed 19 year Metonic cycle. The last only differs in that one intercalary year is dropped in the last 5 year cycle, taking it down to 4 years.

Why use a Metonic model? This is because changes were already thought to have been made to the calendar. The Coligny Calendar could well have been one. It would have taken very little effort to make one from where the calendar during its time of use. A Metonic cycle is an extremely accurate model that works perpetually. In other words, it’s an attempt to save future generations the trouble of having to make changes to one of the other models. This will make tracking and cataloguing history easier. Making this not only a liturgical, but practical option. A full, all purpose calendar. This also allows for history to be recorded.

Year 1 has the month Quimonios starting the year, then the normal 12 months. Year 3 has Rantaranos before Giamonios, thus the 7th of 13 months in that year. The second, fourth and fifth year are 12 month years. This 5 year cycle happens three times. The fourth time, Year 1 is dropped, making it a grand cycle of 19 years, then the calendar starts over again. Every 61 years, one day is dropped from Equos on the 5th year. If someone had a replica plaque, they’d never have to change it. They’d simply cover up the first year of the fourth cycle.

On 8 May, 2022, the next start of the 19 year cycle will begin. Which means, at the time of writing, we’re on the last part of the current one, that which is only four years. Even if you aren’t using the app, you’ll know when a month begins, as it will be the first quarter moon.

At the date of writing, (11 December, 2019), we are in the month of Giamonios. It started on 4 December. This means you can use the normal 12 months until then to know what months come next.

Here is the app again. Check the day, and keep your eyes on the moon!

For the big picture, check this full reconstruction done by Helen Mckay.

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Tegobessus I: Sacred Space

Choose a place in which to do Dugiion, that is worship in your home. If you live in a fancy and/or very rustic establishment, you might already have something like a hearth. Odds are, you don’t. In that case, simply use a good surface as an Uentâ, or place of offering/sacrifice. This place will be the focal point of your Tegobessus (House Custom).

Place relevant stuff on it. At minimum, a candle and a bowl. Images or symbols of Dêuoi are all the better! Added dishes for offerings are fine too. Optimally, you’ll want this to face Ari (East). If not Ari, then try Dexouâ (South). If it has to face Eri (West) or Tutos (North), so be it. While East is optimal, something is better than nothing.

Now, what to put upon this Uentâ? At bare minimum you’ll need a Cumbâ (Bowl, also means “valley”, but is not pertinent to this) and a Dagilâ (candle). Whether or not it’s electric isn’t a big deal. But these are the bare minimums. The Cumbâ to hold the Addatus (offering), the Dagilâ for the Aidû (flame), of course.

Of course, many will want to add Deluâs (images) of various Dêuoi (Worshipped Beings). Or symbols: A Rotos (wheel) for Taranis, an Epos (horse) related symbol for Eponâ, and so on. These certainly add character and help focus attention in a ritual on the deuos in question.

We have the why and how. Now for the when:

Planning rites are essential. Try to do them on a regular basis. The point is not to be perfect but to make an attempt at regularity. Do your best, but don’t beat yourself up over not being perfect. Just make it a goal to do the rites on a regular basis. This will allow for a rhythm to your rituals.

There are plenty of intervals on which one might choose to do rites. They could be done daily, weekly, bi-monthly, but at minimum once a month. Another suggestion is moon phases.

One of the most important things to do before a Rite is that of Glanosâgon (Purification). That means making yourself clean and ritually pure. To do this, you may wish to bathe or shower before ritual. At the least it is important to wash the hands and face. As the Gauls were known for using soap, some kind of bar soap would be a nice continuation of that tradition.

Wash hands and say: Glanolamâs “Clean hands”
Swipe your forehead and say:  Glanobritus “Clean mind”
Swipe down the face with both hands and say: Glananation “Clean soul” (This is based on the idea of the soul residing in the head.)

Purify the sacred space

One must purify the sacred space. To do this, we will invoke Nemetonâ. This is vital to establish your space or making a new one.
We will use Juniper as this was used by the Senogalatis to clear away snakes and to help with bits from poisonous creatures. So we will use it to clear away any unwanted energies in our space.
You will now need a Dagilâ (Candle) to represent Aidona.

Light your Juniper and walk around your area or make a motion around your area in a sunwise circle three times to represent the three realms of Drus (AlbiosBitus, and Dubnos). As you do this, say the below invocation.

Uediumii Nemetonan
(I invoke Nemetonâ)

Donâ anton
(Lady of the Borders)

Uernâ caddî
(Guardian of the Sacred)

Delgaunâ Marâ
(The Great Keeper)

Rodâi caddiâ uentân, etic aneges urittoduscaxslâ
(You give sacredness to the offering space, and you protect against bad spirits)

Rodâmî addatus etic bratun te
(We give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus – Offering]

Arciumî sinuenti bîeto uregetor caddos io
(I ask that this place be made sacred)

Slanon te
(Cheer to you)

Bratun te
(Thanks to you)

Molâmî Nemetoni
(I praise Nemetonâ)

Uregar
(It is done)

Welcoming Aidona

Aidonâ is the name we give to the spirit of the fire; basically, the hearth personified. We are introducing Aidonâ into our space for the first time so this is a very important step for us.

After the invocation, say
Oibelumî (Oibelomos) sinaidû Aidoniâs.
I light (We light) this flame of Aidonâ.

Say some words welcoming Aidonâ
This is very personal and needs to come from you.

[Addatus – Offering]
After the offering, take a few moments to kneel, bow, or sit and commune with the recipient(s)

Bratûn te,
Aidonan

(Thanks to you,
Aidonâ)


Take a moment of Tauson (Silence).


Îuoi (Holidays)

Jump to the list of Îuoi (Holidays)

As with any other custom, a Gaulish custom one needs holidays. Those special times of year where we come together to observe specific Dêuoi for specific reasons. As well as attuning ourselves to the cycle of the seasons and what that means for us. Bessus Nouiogalation is no exception.

In a previous article, we talked about the Sequanni Calendar. The IVOS clusters on the calendar are thought to denote holidays. That being the case, it gives us an idea of where to put at least some holidays. Therefore, it’s fitting to use those clusters to put forth a kind of list of holidays. Along with that, using their placements in the year, we’ll try to use that as a guide to figure out both what to call these holidays and what they may be about. In this way, even if we don’t know the original traditions, we can be inspired to develop some of our own.

For reference sake, we use the BNG Coligny Calendar designed by Ucetion. We feel that they have put together a great working model of the calendar, and we are proud of Ucetion for putting it together. Helen Mckay’s work here is an excellent companion to it.

In the history of the calendar, the length of an age, or where the calendar completed its cycle, went from 30 to 25 years as time went by. As the Metonic cycle is the most accurate as far as lunisolar timekeeping goes, as without it, there is quite an eventual drift. It seems to be a good borrowing. This puts the calendar’s full cycle at 19 years. Remembering that the calendar was originally in a temple to Apollo, who was said to make a journey to the land of the Hyperboreans (a mythic people who lived “beyond the lands of the Celts”) every 19 years. So, it’s far from the least plausible leap.

By retaining the names of the months and being able to keep up with the same methodology of a lunisolar calendar, we see a synthesis of retaining the old while being able to adapt and borrow as the Gauls themselves did.

So, with that reference noted, we should also say that even without the Metonic adaptation, the holidays are still in the same time range. Though the purpose of this article is not to discuss the calendar, we wanted to give some background into the frame of reference we use for the holidays. What we see when looking at the calendar is that there are several points in the year where the notation ‘IVOS’ is attached to several days in a row.

As Iuos notations cluster around certain times of the year, it can be assumed that they are likely holidays. It cannot be said for sure how long a given holiday was observed. As the clusters may point to a range of time in which it was acceptable to observe a given holiday. The pain with the Iuos clusters is that though they are consistent, they still show up in different months on the calendar throughout the years.

Though intercalations are involved with that slight distortion, the timing of the holidays themselves are actually completely consistent. So, on the calendar, the clusters will show up on one month or one other, two at the most. However, it is still consistent because these clusters are marked by one specific moon. In other words, an Iuos cluster may show up around 1 Simiuisonna one year, and near 1 Equos the next, but it will be the same moon in the lunar cycle.

The months start at the first quarter moon, in line with Pliny the Elder’s statement that the Gauls started their months six days after the new moon. This assumes a first quarter start, and a first quarter moon is easily visible. If this sounds confusing, and it did to me at first, it will be made clear now in this list of holidays. Remember that the moon is your friend. Without further ado, the holidays of Bessus Nouiogalation:

  • Sonnocingos Nouios “New Year” – This one needs the calendar linked above for reference.  As it’s the first day on the calendar itself. 1 Samonios is the date most years. Whenever there is an intercalary month of Quimonios, it is 1 Quimonios.
  • Diios Nouiogalation “Day of the New Galatîs” – The Birthday of Bessus Nouiogalation always falls on is 9 Samoni.
  • Cintusamos “Start of Summer” – Always two first quarter moons before the summer solstice.
  • Samolitus “Summer Festival” – Always the first quarter moon before the summer solstice.
  • Trinox Samoni “Three nights of Samonios” – This one also requires the app linked above. Starts on 17 Samonios. Usually, the third quarter moon closest to the summer solstice. However, it can be on or just after it. No more than a week after.
  • Cerdolitus “Crafting Feast” – Third quarter moon before Cintumessus below.
  • Cintumessus “First Harvest” – Always two first quarter moons after the summer solstice.
  • Catus Alisiâs “Battle of Alessia” – Third quarter moon closest to the autumn equinox. Always 17 Ogronios.
  • Cintugiamos “Start of Winter” – Two first quarter moons before the winter solstice.
  • Giamolitus “Winter Feast” – Full moon closest to the winter solstice.
  • Adbiuos “To Life, Quickening” – Two first quarter moons after the winter solstice.
  • Uisonnalitus “Spring Feast” – Just after the new moon closest to the spring equinox.
  • Gregorian Holiday Dates for the Upcoming Coligny Calendar Year
  • Îuoi in Îanê (Holidays in Virtue)

These are the holidays, or as has been jested about “Gaulidays” that we have come to a conclusion upon. At a later date, we will look at each holiday in depth. Until then, thanks for reading!

Sernis Bituion (Cosmology)

Within a developed worldview, there is often a presentation of cosmological concepts. Not to mention an enumeration of worlds. Though the number varies in various Indo-European cultures, three is a very common number. John Shaw, in ‘On Indo-European Cosmic Structure’ covers this very well. (The link shared is to academia.edu, free to sign up, and many articles are free as well.) Given that many other cultures had a three world cosmological structure at their core, it is not a stretch to assume this to be the case with the Gaulish peoples.

Those three worlds are Albios, Bitus, and Dubnos. A bit of explanation is required.

Dubnos is the Underworld, the Deep, and can relate not only to Mori (Gaulish for “sea”) but that which is under Bitus (the world in which we live). Under lakes, streams, caves, you name it. That which is under the Earth, home to Andernadoi (chthonic) beings. This includes not only Dêuoi of Dubnos, but at least some Rogentiâ (Ancestors), and other spirits. Some benevolent (bestowing riches and fertility of the land), others malevolent. It is here that is the womb of Litauiâ (the Earth), as we come from it, and our bodies, at the very least, return to it.

Dubnos is associated with things Giamos — that is, darkness, chaotic, chthonic, primal, and of winter.

Bitus is our own world, which other than being the home of humanity, is home to a myriad of other beings. This is also the domain of the Litauiatîs (land spirits), which are Dêuoi and Spirits of the Earth. This includes deities tied to locations such as lakes, rivers, mountains, trees, forests, and at this point, if not before, cities. Bitus is acted upon both of the other worlds. Thus we get both order and chaos, to live and die, the turnings of the seasons, and influences from both of the other worlds. We are subject to the full experience of these cycles.

Albios is the upper world. It is home to Ueranadoi (celestial) beings. The Dêuoi and Spirits of Nemos (the Sky), live here. Generally, these are the beings that provide order, protection, and that which is needed for civilization. To simply classify them as benevolent or malevolent does them a bit of disservice, as it is their job to preserve order. However, through reciprocal exchange with Them, as with the Dêuoi of the other two worlds, They too, may return such gifts with Their benevolence.

Albios is associated with things Samos — that is, light, order, celestial, civilized, and of summer.

One can also posit something that links the Three Worlds. That would be Drus (the World Tree). Drus is, in this case, the axis mundi, or pillar of worlds. In this case, comparisons can be made to Yggdrasil in Norse mythology, or Mount Olympus in Greek mythology. The roots of Drus lie within Dubnos, the trunk in Bitus, with a canopy that stretches to Albios.

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