Toutâdêuoi and Toutâregentiâ

Bessus Nouiogalation is an adbessus (tradition). As such, and being comprised of several people, that means that as a Touta, we have specific Dêuoi (Gods) and Regentiâ (Ancestors) of our Touta that fill certain functions. Of course, many Dêuoi are worshipped by BNG members outside of BNG. However, below are the Toutâdêuoi and Toutâregentiâ we, as a Touta, specifically give devotion towards. The Dêuoi and Regentiâ listed below are viewed in specific ways for our Touta you will find a small write-up and our Adgarion (Invocations).

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Aidonâ is the sacred fire, the hearth personified in the home or wherever the flame is present. For Bessus Nouiogalation Aidonâ is our Hearth Deuos.
Your hearth is anyplace your flame is, if this is a fireplace or a candle, your hearth is there.

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Also spelled Esus. His name is thought to mean “sacred, fire”. He has been likened to both Mars and Mercury. He is most well known for the depiction of Him pruning a tree with what may be either an axe or a billhook. Near Him is Tarvos Trigaranos (Bull and Three Cranes). The cranes perhaps a death omen. Theories as to what this means varies, but our suspicion is that Aisus is maintaining a sacred grove. Remember that such groves were carefully curated places.
By maintaining the grove, sacrifice, as bulls were commonly a sacrificial animal, was possible. So whether or not He kills Tarvos Trigaranos is irrelevant. He at least makes the sacrifice possible. He is also invoked in an invocation relating to the curing of a troubled throat. Suggesting that He may also be involved in magic.
He shares his skills with humanity. What Aisus is possibly doing is teaching us the knowledge of sacrifice and how to perform it. Equally important is that He is teaching us how to maintain sacred spaces. As again, such spaces were carefully cultivated and their locations deliberate.
His invocation on a tablet requesting a cure suggests that the Gaulish idea of magic was not one that separated the practitioner from the Dêuoi. Instead reinforcing that we are connected with Them and our actions are best when in line with what They teach.

Adgarion Aisous

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Aisun
Tigernos aidous
Delgaunos Drous
Das uiððus contoutî, caddocerdâs iton
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Aisous
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Aisus

We/I invoke Aisus
King of the Nemeton
Lord of the Fire
Keeper of Drus
You give wisdom to the people, your sacred arts
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Aisus
We/I go in peace

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Coming soon

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There are a few contending interpretations for what his name means but normally is thought to mean something like “Powerful”. He was likened by the Romans to Apollo. This can provide some insight into his nature. He is associated with sunlight (but not a Dêuos of the sun), light, horses (clay ones were offered to him), and war. It was once said that he was seen defending the city of Aquileia from a siege. He is also associated with hot springs, tying him into healing. Altogether, He sounds like a very ancient Dêuos. And it’s possible that he could have been mythologically associated with pulling the sun across the sky in a horse drawn chariot, based on his traits and the clay horse offerings. His worship was widespread, apparently starting out in Eastern Gaul to Noricum, and spreading west and north, to Britain.

Adgarion Belinû

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Belinon
Delgaunos onobîias
Tenos in dubrê
Caniuolcos nerticos
Amarcolitanus, Liagimâros etic delgaunos runâs elus
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Belinû
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Belinos

We/I invoke Belinos
Holder of the water of life
Fire in the water
Mighty valiant hero
He with the far piercing sight, great healer and keeper of secrets
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Belinos
We/I go in peace

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Her name is thought to mean “the High One”, high as in elevated like a hilltop or a mountain. This is where forts were often constructed, which can reasonably lead to a conclusion that she is a warrior Dêuâ. Being depicted with spears and in a helm certainly strengthens the idea. Being likened to Minerva, who is likened to Athena, the patron deity of Athens, who is associated with war and strategy among other things paints a deeper picture. She was also likened to Victoria.
In Her, we see a protective Dêuâ of warfare. In Britain, she was the tutelary Dêuâ of the Brigantes tribe. In Gaul, she was depicted with a spear, a “globe of victory”, as well as with a gorgon’s head on her chest. So we can see deep mythological elements that makes one easily associate her with the arts of war.
We have no direct gnosis to offer of Brigindû in reference to who she is. As a firm and fierce protectress is how we see her as well. We don’t see a connection to Irish Brighid (save for linguistically), but we also have no desire to come across as invalidating the views of those who comparatively illuminate Brigindû through her. After all, deities cannot be put into neat little boxes. It is simply that we do not make the connection.

Adgarion Brigindonâ

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Brigindunen
Morênâ catoues
Uernâ dunassiâs
Riganâ boudês
Tenos uer bannî, gaisos etic cladios danacâ, boudi in lamî
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Brigindonâ
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Brigindû

We/I invoke Brigindû
Maiden of war
Guardian of the fortress
Queen of victory
Fire upon the peak, spear and sword gifted, victory in hand
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Brigindû
We/I go in peace

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Carnonos is suspected to be His Gaulish name, Cernunnos being a later form used in the Gallo-Roman era. Either way, most will know who you are talking about. The etymology isn’t certain, but is commonly thought to mean “Horned One”.
He is often depicted with a ram horned serpent, and sometimes with animals like bulls, of course deer, and occasionally a rat. He is also depicted with a torc or torcs, the famous neck rings associated with the Gauls among other peoples. Also being depicted on the Pillar of the Boatmen, this leads to a linking of Him to commerce and trade. In Celtiberia, depictions of Him as being like Janus links Him to being a Dêuos of Bidirectionality.
As we can expect, this paints a very interesting picture of a Dêuos who was linked to many things, and as Dêuoi are, very complex. We see chthonic and liminal aspects. Riches of Dubnos (the Underworld), but also of a kind of intermediary, travel and perhaps a kind of psychopomp, one who guides souls of the dead. Liminal and chthonic properties at work here. Bulls and deer being on either side of Him reflect a boundary of the “civilized” and the “wilds”. An important distinction at a time where being in the settlement was the safest place to be and when the wilds really were that. They still are in some places, but not to the extent they were in the Iron Age. Carnonos conduit of Samos and Giamos. Walker between worlds sitting at Antumnos (The Otherworld).

Adgarion Carnonû

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Carnonon
Uernos mantali
Entar bitoues
Agetios Ecuoues
antê trirîgion sesîi etic ages anatiâ
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Carnonû
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Carnonos

We/I invoke Carnonos
Warden of the roads
Between worlds
He Who Guides the Herds
At the border of the realms, you sit and guide souls
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Carnonos
We/I go in peace

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Her name means “Battle Crow”, also Cathuboduâ. As there isn’t thought to be a “th” sound in Gaulish, the “h” is probably silent and so we generally don’t use it. Her name says a lot about that with which She is involved. War. There is a belief that crows were thought to choose who was to be slain on the field of battle. Presumably because they consume those who die.
However, as there are other cultures with beliefs that those who die were carried up to a to the afterlife by crows or ravens. It is in some ways, as those who fall in battle are celebrated in many cultures, not a completely bad thing to have been chosen. Since if one assumes they will die and provided they don’t flee are probably going to fight ferociously.
So, She is indeed not only a Dêuâ accustomed to death, She is involved in the process. Carrying the fallen on Her wings to a good afterlife.

Adgarion Catuboduî

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Catuboduan
Messuaunâ galliâs
Barnaunâ argonon
Riganâ Cingeti
Ueretrû iton, areuedestû argos comarion uellin
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Catuboduî
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Catuboduâ

We/I invoke Catuboduâ
Measurer of valor
Judge of the worthy
Queen of warriors
Upon your wings, you carry the worthy to a better place
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Catuboduâ
We/I go in peace

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Celtînâ is the mother of Galatos, our Touatis, and the partner or spouse of Ogmios. Preeminent in strength, valor, and beauty, the mother of the one who gives the name of Galatis to us through our ancestor Galatos. The mother ancestor of the Galatis possesses the virtues and beauty most prized by our ancestors. 

Celtînâ is based on two separate stories to form a mythical Gnosis for Bessus Nouiogalation.

Hercules, it is told, after he had taken the king of Geryones from Erythea, was wandering through the country of the Celts and came to the house of Bretannus, who had a daughter called Celtine. Celtine fell in love with Hercules and hid away the kine, refusing to give them back to him unless he would first content her. Hercules was indeed very anxious to bring the kine safe home, but he was far more struck by the girl’s exceeding beauty and consented to her wishes; and then, when the time had come round, a son called Celtus was born to them, from whom the Celtic race derived their name.”

Parthenius, Love Romances, 30

Now Celtica was ruled in ancient times, so we are told, by a renowned man who had a daughter who was of unusual stature and far excelled in beauty all the other maidens. But she, because of her strength of body and marvellous comeliness, was so haughty that she kept refusing every man who wooed her in marriage, since she believed that no one of her wooers was worthy of her. Now in the course of his campaign against the Geryones, Heracles visited Celtica and founded there the city of Alesia,23 and the maiden, on seeing Heracles, wondered at his prowess and his bodily superiority and accepted his embraces with all eagerness, her parents having given their consent. From this union she bore to Heracles a son named Galates, who far surpassed all the youths of the tribe in quality of spirit and strength of body. And when he had attained to man’s estate and had succeeded to the throne of his fathers, he subdued a large part of the neighbouring territory and accomplished great feats in war. Becoming renowned for his bravery, he called his subjects Galatae or Gauls after himself, and these in turn gave their name to all of Galatia or Gaul.”

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, 5.24.1 – 5.24.3
Adgarion Celtînî

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Celtînan
Cintumatir Galation
Cintus in nertê etic canî
Druticos in ollontobi
Matirmarâ Galation, uxelliâ aisson, ton boudiâ enatâssetnis
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Celtînan
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Celtînâ

We/I invoke Celtînâ
First mother of the Galatîs
First in might and beauty
Valourous in all ways
Great Mother of the Galatîs, pride of the ages, your glory begat us
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Celtînâ
We/I go in peace

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Her name has to do with the word Ðirâ, (Ð = ts) meaning “star”. She is depicted with eggs, snakes, and associated with healing springs. She is also depicted wearing a star shaped diadem, and wearing a long gown. The snake and eggs bring to mind a connection to the Greek deity Hygeia.
Here we have a Dêuâ of healing, of stars, of springs and wells. She is also depicted once holding grains and fruits. Temples to Her were also built around springs and wells. So, we have her associated with snakes, eggs, wells, springs, stars, and fertility.
Our gnosis is that the star connection coupled with snakes, eggs, and wells have to do with the liminal period of spring. Wells fill, and springs are more active this time of year. Snakes emerge from their burrows, and eggs are hatching at this time. As this is the time of that emergence, we suspect if a star were related to her, it wouldn’t actually be a star, but the planet Venus. Of course, other planets look like stars to the naked eye in the sky.
Though not directly in the shape of a star, Venus does move through five points in the sky, and is visible mainly in the evening and morning, a liminal time of day, and spring is a liminal time of year. We also realize that’s a fairly generous gnosis, so take from it what you will.

Adgarion Ðironî

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Ðironan
Cintuðirâ nemê
Matîr uoberi
Liagis lobri
Cintus extemellû, delgestû tudauon diion uellon
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Ðironî
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Sironâ

We/I invoke Sironâ
First star in the sky
Mother of the springs
Healer of the sick
First from the darkness, you hold the promise of better days
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Sironâ
We/I go in peace

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Her name is certainly related to the Gaulish word for horse, which is Epos. So, it’s clear that She is a Dêuâ of horses. However, She is much more complicated than that. Horses hold connotations of sovereignty, and Otherworldly travel. Perhaps because of their ability to traverse the land. However, horses are not the only things depicted with Her.
Grains, and later cornucopiae, are also featured with Her. This suggests that She is associated with harvests and the fruits of the earth. As for the horses, She was depicted riding them side saddled. Which doesn’t suggest a Dêuâ of horse riding, but She was in fact worshipped by cavalry. This carries notions of being a Dêuâ of war.
She was also depicted with a key, suggesting an inclination toward domestic functions as well. Here we have a complex, multi faceted Dêuâ. Of horses, war, harvest, and the home. A couple of interesting offerings to Her in the past were roses, and a cauldron. Which furthers Her domestic associations.
With many burials we also see remains of horses or of horse drawn vehicles. This means She was possibly associated with the function of a psychopomp. This also suggests, if related to cavalry, that She may have also been one to lead a spectral ride, perhaps similar to a Wild Hunt. This usually takes place in the winter in most cultures.
When Gaul fell, Eponâ occupied a unique position of being the subject of Roman worship as well, with a feast day of 18 December, Eponalia. It seems that worship of Her is sometimes related to the time of the middle of winter, which back them would have been thought of as near the winter solstice. It is possible, at least as far as my gnosis goes, that She also gives birth to a child around this time. As midwinter times seem to be a time of celebrating Her, that child may have some kind of solar relation.

Adgarion Eponî

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Eponan
Riganâ uercariâs
Deuâ ulatês
Riganâ messous
Eporediâ entar bitoues, rodâi boudin ollon
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn tê
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Eponî
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Eponâ

We/I invoke Eponâ
Queen of the fertile land
Dêuâ of the sovereign land
Queen of the Harvest
Rider between worlds, you give bounty to all
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Eponâ
We/I go in peace

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His name is related to a word for “blacksmith”. As such, He’s a Dêuos of smithing, crafting, and of smiths. Known from a zinc tablet in Switzerland, which notes of Him as one who travels, it implies that He perhaps learned, and at least distributed and used His skills widely. Smiths, especially in the past shaped pieces of metal into things people needed and wanted. Putting Him among Dêuoi who helped shape society and culture as much as He shaped metal.
A piece of lore in BNG is that He fashions a spear for Lugus to rescue His beloved Rosmertâ. As such having His îuos (holiday) Cerdalitus, just before Cintumessus when Lugus succeeds in that rescue. Done thanks to the assistance of Gobannos.

Adgarion Gobanû

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Gobanon
Alaunos bituos
Ordos prii
Tigernos teni
Nertolamâs etic ordomâros, rodâi crittâ galletiûs nouiûs
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Gobanû
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Gobanos

We/I invoke Gobannos
Wanderer of the world
Hammer of creating
Master of the fire
Mighty hands and great hammer, you give shape to new possibilities
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Gobannos
We/I go in peace

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There are a few potential meanings for His name. Lugus is thought to be the mysterious “Gaulish Mercury”. This is for the reason that Caesar states that Mercury was the most revered being, of course not literally Mercury but a Dêuos likened to Him. He said that this being was a patron of trade, protector of travelers and the inventor of arts.
This lead scholars to liken Lugus to Irish Lugh, who is said to be skilled in all arts. Lugus is not Lugh, but They both seem to share this trait and linguistic relation. There are also other Dêuoi likened to Mercury, so Lugus is not the only one, but it seems fair to assume Him among Them.
His symbology includes spears, ravens, roosters, bags of coin, and being depicted with three faces. Here we can interpret that He is proud and skilled in war, familiar with death, looking in multiple directions, probably in guard, and a patron of wealth and prosperity.

Adgarion Lugou

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Lugun
Tigernos cerdânon
Rix corii
Latis caili
Gaisos in lamî, uissus in britû, creddâ olli in te
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Lugou
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Lugus

We/I invoke Lugus
Master of the arts
King of the warband
Hero of destiny
Spear in hand, knowledge in mind, faith of all in you
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Lugus
We/I go in peace

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His name has to do with the word Mapos, which means “son, young boy”. In Gallo-Roman times, He was likened to Apollo. So we see a connection to youthfulness, and a solar connection. Though not a sun Dêuos. He is depicted with a harp on a relief in Northern Britain which is another interesting Apollo connection. With His connection not only to light and youthfulness, but also to music. An Apollo connection could also suggest a connection to healing.
In Gaul, He is invoked on a magic tablet, a defixione, in which the words of a spell are inscribed upon it. Suggesting that He has connections to magic as well. So here we have a Dêuos associated with sunlight, healing, music, and magic. Gnosis-wise, we suspect He was born in the winter and as Eponâ is also venerated at the time, maybe She is His mother? This would certainly be a break from Maponos’s Welsh cognate of Mabon who is the son of Modron, in Gaulish Matrona.
It is theorized by some that Oengus Mac Og is related in a way to Maponos, His mother is Boann, so we see at least some variation in the mothers of deities of this kind. A supporting argument we offer for this gnosis is that horses have been known to have a solar connection, and if Eponâ is venerated near a solar event, that event may be related to Maponos, who by comparison to Apollo has solar traits.

Adgarion Maponû

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Maponon
Bardos aneuetos
Mapað leuci
Delgaunos brixtânon
Leucomâros etic nertoiouantus, ueiâ etic biuos ollaiui
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Maponû
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation to Maponos

We/I invoke Maponos
Inspired Bardos
Child of Light
Keeper of Magics
Great light and a strong youth, energy and life eternal
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Maponos
We/I go in peace

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Their name means “Great or Divine Mothers”. They are almost always invoked in multiples, though there is a case of a Matronâ that is the Dêuâ of the Marne in France who may be related. More common by the Gallo-Roman era, Matronæ is a very common form we see. BNG has opted for Materês based on one of the earliest inscriptions in the Gallo-Greek form Matrêbo, the dative form of Materês. A good source on Materês is found in Noemie Beck’s thesis, titled ‘Goddesses in Celtic Religion’.
Materês were seen by depictions being involved in of course child rearing or bearing and fertility of the land, but were also invoked in war and were very widespread in worship. Found from Spain to Germany, Britain to Italy. There are potential ideas that they may have been attributed to fate as well. In BNG, this is a major focus of Materês. In this particular respect they fulfill a role similar to Greek Fates, and Scandinavian Norns. In BNG, they guide and measure our fate, and destiny, protect, and help give life to the land.

Adgarion Materebo

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Materês
Biuotus rodamaunâs
Caddos maiamos
Uissuaunâs tonceton
In geni, biuê, etic maruê, uednis etic messus ollon
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratun suos
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Materebo
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for the Materês

We/I invoke the Materês
Life givers
Most holy
Knowers of fates
In birth, life, and death, guiding and measuring us all
We/I give offering and thanks to you all
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Materês
We/I go in peace

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Her name has a few possible meanings. Xavier Delamarre gives “sun warmed valley”. She has been depicted holding a house on a pole, with beehives, and with a crow or raven, under a depiction of the sun. Which show suggestions of a few things within which She may be involved. Such as prosperity granted to us by Her, who holds the gifts of the earth.
The house gives a couple of possibilities to us. It could either be some kind bird house, or meant to be an actual house showing perhaps Her supporting the home, perhaps from below, giving Her a chthonic quality. The carrion bird, a raven or crow perhaps relating to death. This gives the impression of a Dêuâ involved with both prosperity in life, and machinations of death.

Adgarion Nantosueltî

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Nantosueltian
Matîr marâ
Delgaunâ uenios
Riganâ lanobitous
Magloi buiont ûros corinon iton, rodarcon suanciton
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Nantosueltî
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Nantosueltâ

We/I invoke Nantosueltâ
Great mother
Keeper of pleasures
Queen of the world of plenty
The fields become green with your touch, a welcome sight
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Nantosueltâ
We/I go in peace

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Her name has to do with nemetons, which are of course places of worship, and famously the sacred groves in which the Ancient Gauls worshipped. In BNG she is invoked at the setup of a uentâ, or space in which rites are performed. She was named for Victoria, in Eisenberg, in what is now Germany. Popular with the Treveri people, one of whom even put up an altar to her while in Britain.

Adgarion Nemetonî

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Nemetonan
Donâ anton
Uernâ caddî
Delgaunâ Marâ
Rodâi caddiâ uentân, etic aneges urittoduscaxslâ
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratun te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Nemetonî
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Nemetonâ

We/I invoke Nemetonâ
Lady of the Borders
Guardian of the Sacred
The Great Keeper
You give sacredness to the offering space, and you protect against bad spirits
We give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Nemetonâ
We/I go in peace

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The meaning of His name is uncertain. Xavier Delamarre gives “guide, path”, and somewhere else (memory fails) “conductor” was suggested. These have to do with the belief that He is one who leads souls to the afterlife. Allegedly by binding them with His speech. It is said that those who went with Him did so gladly. It is also said that Ogmios was likened to Hercules. However, that it is the strength of His words that held the greatest power.
He is also, according to Jean-Louis Brunaux in ‘Les Gaulois: vérités et légendes’ speaks of Ogmios, being likened to Hercules as being an ancestor of the Gauls as a whole. This happens around the time of interaction with the Greeks which led to a rapid increase in infrastructure. A time when the Gauls begin to see themselves as Gauls. Though regional identities were usually stronger. (A factor in their tragic downfall.)
He was depicted as an older man, with sun darkened skin. Jean-Loius Brunaux adds that He was said to have had in His retinue people of many nations. This has led to that being gnosis, if not what literally was the case, fleshing out an otherwise not as well known Dêuos. Along with this, from Ralph Hausseler in ‘From Tomb to Temple: the Role of Hero Cults in Local Religion in Gaul and Britain During the Iron Age and Roman Period’, he mentions Ogmios as ancestor of the Gauls. This gives Ogmios a preeminent position among Dêuoi in BNG.

Adgarion Ogmiû

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Ogmion
Cintuatîr Galation
Excenu bebanastû, uxelliâ Galation, rodîssestûnis anuan anson
Rodîmos/Rodîumî adbertâ etic bratûn tê
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Ogmiû
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Ogmios

We/I invoke Ogmios
First father of the Galatîs
Great speaker
Mighty hero
From far you came, pride of the Galatîs, you gave us our name
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Ogmios
We/I go in peace

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Her name is thought to mean “Great Provider”. She is depicted with fruits, a cornucopia, as well as with coins and an offering bowl. It is clear that She is a Dêuâ of the wealth of the land. The abundance of the fruits of harvest and wealth perhaps that those fruits can provide.
Interestingly, She is depicted alongside Mercury, and this leads many to consider Her to be paired with Lugus. This is a reasonable assumption, and with Lugus being a Dêuos of skills and wealth, Rosmertâ is a source for those things by holding the wealth of the land, from which all things come.

Adgarion Rosmertî

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Rosmertan
Riganâ corii
Rataunâ meniâs
Matîr uolugon
Marauetâ, raies brigon etic suraton colargotuð
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Rosmertî
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Rosmertâ

We/I invoke Rosmertâ
Queen of the warband
Bestower of wealth
Sustaining mother
Great protectress, you bestow power and good fortune with generosity
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Rosmertâ
We/I go in peace

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His name is thought to mean either “kind” or “good striker”. He is depicted with a big mallet and sometimes a cup. He is thought to be associated at the least with wine growing and agriculture. He has also been depicted wearing a wolf pelt.
He was compared to Silvanus, who is associated with woods and forests. Sucellos is sometimes depicted like Etruscan Charon, and is also seen accompanied by a dog. If we take a look at the comparison with Charon, we see chthonic associations. As Charon ferried souls to the world of the dead.
His large mallet also suggests He is associated with boundaries, as the mallet looks like something that drives in fenceposts. Also giving a strong sense of agriculture and maintenance of the fields and farms. Thus also a shaper of the gifts of the earth. He is also depicted alongside Nantosueltâ.

Adgarion Sucellû

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Sucellon
Atîr Raton
Medos candosocci
Uernos bitoues
Deluâunos textiâs magliâs, randestû textâs iton cotoutin
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Sucellû
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Sucellos

We/I invoke Sucellos
Generous father
Caretaker of the vines/shoots
Watcher of realms
Shaper of the gifts of the land, you share your gifts with the people
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Sucellos
We/I go in peace

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She is spoken of in either triplicates or singularly. Her name is thought to mean “good guide”. Compared to the Roman Junones (feminine guardian spirits), and sometimes the Matronæ, or Materês — of Gaulish, Germanic, and Roman fame. Though sometimes, the Matres and Suleuiâs were invoked together. So we can see that the boundary between the two kinds of Dêuâs or spirits was not always clear.
Suleuiâ or Suleuiâs are Dêuâs of people, but in an important functional context — places, especially homes. Now it may have in the past been tribal or regional Suleuiâs that were more relevant. In a modern context, one is likely the only Galatis in the area. As such, the Suleuiâ is a protector, of one’s home and of one’s person. They are not limited to the home, of course, and can guide us in any affair. At the toutâ level, they do the same thing. The Suleuiâs guide us in decision-making, and as such, we see them as being very involved in day-to-day life.

Adgarion Suleuiâbo

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Suleuiâs
Uernâs uissoues
Delgaunâs rextuon
Carâs uîrisamâs
Esue leucos îani uedetesuîs ollon
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic braton suos
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Suleuiâbo
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for the Suleuiâs

We/I invoke the Suleuiâs
Wise guardians
Keepers of right
Truest friends
You all are the light of virtue, you guide us all
We/I give offering and thanks to you all
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Suleuiâs
We/I go in peace

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Here, with Taranis (in dedication of all the work here that Nellos does) there is more known. Or at least ideas of Him are a bit easier to flesh out in comparison to other Dêuoi. His name means “Thunder” or “Thunderer”. Which is agreed upon by every expert that at least we are aware. His name underlines with what He is most associated: thunder, storms, lightning, rain.
He is often outright depicted wielding either a literal thunderbolt, especially in Gallo-Roman times, or a club or staff. Both of which are striking weapons. This aligns well with lightning. In Britain, a Dêuos holding a crooked club with a wheel beside Him is depicted. Bringing us to His most enigmatic symbol: the wheel. Wheels are depicted in His place more than any image of Him. Wheels are found with or alongside inscriptions bearing His name, so we can safely attribute wheels as a symbol of Him.
The club, staff, weapon is a more clearly understood symbol. The wheel is more mysterious. There are many theories. Some are as simple as an analogy of “rolling thunder”. Others as deep as the rotation of the skies, which puts Him up to be a Dêuos of the sky, and not just storms. With that association, He can be assumed to also be associated with the general upholding of truth and order. On Jupiter columns (He is most associated with Jupiter, surprise) an uncommon depiction of Jupiter on horseback, which Jupiter is not depicted with, are often found along the Rhine. Which ran through Gaulish lands. Under these Jupiters is a serpent or monster being trodden upon.
It is quite common for thunder deities to be slayers of serpents and monsters. Taranis appears to be no exception. So, we have a great sky and thunder Dêuos who upholds truth and slays cosmic enemies. However, He isn’t all about death and destruction. After all, He is slaying things that are a threat. Storms also bring rain, which gives life and feeds the land. Lightning is beneficial to soil as well. And so it is fair to see Him as just as much a Dêuos who gives life. With winds that come with storms, breath.
We offer the interwoven facts and gnosis here. It also warrants mentioning that wheels have been seen on urns. This means He probably has a function in death. Also, wielding lightning comes with fire, which both purifies and sanctifies. As with other Dêuoi, we see a great and complex Dêuos.

Adgarion Taranê

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Taranin
Dêuos Rotî
Delgaunos Uîridi
Delgestû loucetion etic anegestû ollon
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Taranê
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for Taranis

We/I invoke Taranis
Lord of the Sky
Dêuos of the Wheel
Keeper of Truth
You hold the lightning and you protect all
We/I give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Taranis
We/I go in peace

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The name means “Of the People, Tribe, or Nation”. The Toutatis is the protector and guardian of a given group of people. As such, BNG has a Toutatis. They are a kind of Dêuos, but sometimes we see a Toutatis has a name of their own such as perhaps Caturix, Camulos, or Lenus.
They are usually likened to Roman Mars, associated with protection, war, and fighting disease. As was said, sometimes a Toutatis has an otherwise known name, sometimes not. In BNG, our Touatais is called Galatos and is the son of Ogmios. Whether this is the Galatos mentioned in Greek accounts as the ancestor of the Galatians or not, we do not know (BNG is not specifically focused on the historic region Galatia). However, it is worth noting that Galatian comes from the word Galatis (Greek Galates), which is a word relating to Gauls.

Adgarion Galatû Toutatî

Adgariomos/Adgariūmī Toutaton
Latis Toutiâs
Nertos urittosergios
Uernos Anson
Anegestûnis etic rodîestû tancon
Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratun tê
Slanon te
Bratûn te
Molâmos/Molâmî Galatû Toutatî
Iâmos/Iâiumî in tancê

Invocation for the Toutais Galatos

We invoke the Toutatis Galatos
Hero of the people
Mighty against disease
Our guardian
You protect us and give us peace
We give offering and thanks to you
Cheer to you
Thanks to you
We/I praise you Toutatis Galatos
We/I go in peace

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Bessus Nouiogalation does it’s best to develop a rich tradition for those who wish to partake, and we hope that those who do are served in this humble piece. These are our Toutadêuoi and Regentiâ, amongst the many we worship and try to serve, along with our community. We hope you have found this reading useful.

Tegobessus IV: Regentiâ (Ancestors)

The worship thereof is one of the oldest and longest lasting practices we know of, and the most persistent. In fact, forms of it still linger in almost every society. The dead are often treated with a sense of reverence. And many cultures carry on revering folks long after their deaths. Though less can be said with certainty, the Gauls were no exception.

It is known that they had burial mounds, though less often than the Gauls’ own ancestors. Burials did indeed occur, however. Finding these burials is one of the most common ways of finding information about the Gauls, and many other peoples that didn’t leave much documentation of themselves. Ubiquitous for their part of Europe is the cult of the head. It has been confirmed that the Gauls embalmed heads. This is often considered to have been done to their enemies.

However, it’s nearly impossible to prove whether or not that is the case. Jean Louis Brunaux in ‘the Celtic Gauls: Gods, Rites, and Sanctuaries’ (p.88), had this to say:

Another presumption in favour of ancestor cult comes from an ethnographic parallel very close in both time and space, from the peoples of the Altai in the Scythian sphere as far as Mongolia. Among all these peoples the removal of enemies’ heads was a widespread custom: the account of Diodorus Siculus gives of the Gauls, is related by Herodotus about the Scyths, and by Abul Ghazi about the Tartars and Mongols. Now, all these populations practised the cult of the head of their ancestors alongside it. To preserve these prestigious bones was to appropriate the soul of the one whose power they desired to possess, whether this was a relative or an enemy.

While the Roman accounts do provide an insight into the cult of the head. It appears — and taking their political biases into account — that they got to about half of the potential truth. So of the poorly attested accounts of Gaulish ancestor cult, we have at least that much. This begs the question to those of us in Bessus Nouiogalation: What do we do with it?

Let’s take this — generally unpalatable to the modern taste and legal system — approach and do something with it. Obviously, it’s not recommended, or legal in most places, to preserve the head of your dearly departed Senatîr, “Pop Pop, Abuelo, etc.” (grandfather). Okay, got it. But we can still make use of the motif. Fortunately, replica resin skulls (ironic as resin was used for embalming the heads at times) are often easily available. So when honouring our ancestors, we can still carry on the Gaulish motif of the head.

Other ways to honour our ancestors would be visiting their graves. Much as folks still do, where they still leave offerings to their ancestors to this day. This is a practice that has survived for thousands of years. On the Aidû “sacred fire, altar” pictures of your dearly departed are another way to do this. And there are many others. Be creative!

Now comes the common question of ancestry and if one’s ancestry “matters” in regard to custom. On this, BNG has two things to say about this:
All who wish are welcome to practice BNG, and/or any Gaulish custom regardless of their ancestry.
Anyone in any Gaulish custom can count the Gauls as among their ancestors as we are inspired by them. Blood or not, doesn’t matter. And historically this is confirmed, as well as morally understood today by all Galatîs.

Another thing to remember about Ancestors is that this includes adopted ancestors. If one is adopted, then the ancestors of those who adopted you are your ancestors as well. As well as those who have gone who had a significant impact on your life in pretty much any way. Anyone, related or not who helped shape you into to the person you are, or family, group you are in, that has passed on can be considered an ancestor.

The last thing, is the ancestor of the Gauls themselves. Different Galatis have different answers to this question. In BNG, it is Ogmios. Based on interpretations not only by Brunaux, but also Ralph Hauseler in this treatise (free PDF from if you click there) called ‘From Tomb to Temple: the Role of Hero Cults in Local Religion in Gaul and Britain During the Iron Age and Roman Period’ has this to say about Ogmios:

Indigenous deities like Ogmios appear to be heroes par excellence, comparable to Herakles whose heroic deeds were already known in pre-Roman Gaul. In this view, it should not surprise us that Parthenios of Nikaia considered Hercules to be the ancestor of all Gauls, and that Ogmios could be seen as the god from whom all life originates.

So here, Bessus Nouiogalation incorporates both an Gaulish inspired cult of the head, and an ancestor that we and any other Galatis who chooses can share with the ancient Gauls. Burriâ is the word here we give, it means both pride and infatuation. When we look at the Gauls and the modern Galatis customs that develop, it is both pride and love we feel.

In parting, we offer this uediâ, or invocation to the Regentiâ “ancestors”:

Uediomos/Uediumî Regentiâ
(We/I invoke the Ancestors)

Senomaterês etic Senaterês
(Old mothers and old fathers)

(Old families)

Regentiâ coimâs
(Dear Ancestors)

Rodissatesuîs biuotus nîs etic uilietesuîs nîs
(You gave us life and you watch [over] us)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratun tê
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

Invocations to Ogmios and many other Dêuoi (worshipped beings) can be found here. Ancestors matter because without them, you wouldn’t exist. But remember, your ancestors go back for time immemorial. So, even when one may have issues with some, others are likely still worthy of offering. And failing that, there’s always Ogmios. The mighty hero whose greatest strength is His words, always someone one can turn to.

Tegobessus III: Tegatis (House spirit)

In the previous piece we spoke of the basics of doing a simple ritual at home. That involved the invocation of deities in such rites. However, it’s important to note that Dêuoi aren’t always going to be the main focus of such rituals. As Galatîs, and especially in BNG, there are many spirits other than deities with which we have encounters through more or less formal rites.

One of those which is less formal is that concerning the Tegatis, or “one of the house”. From Tegos “house”, and -atis “the one of”, such as in Toutatis “the one of the tribe”. Your house spirit. Of course this also applies if you live in an apartment.

House spirits aren’t something recorded from Gaul because household practices such as this weren’t really recorded. Though it is possible that the severed heads that some Gauls were known for keeping, or perhaps the bones of an ancestor helped serve this function. Or burying the body of a deceased family member within the premises of the homestead. Though we should not judge these ancient practices with modern eyes, they certainly aren’t legal in most places in the modern day. The Gauls were far from alone in doing this. But they are obviously not recommended practices to revive.

However, this is something found in many cultures including many of the neighbours of the Gauls at various points in time. One example is the Roman Lares. Amongst Germanic peoples the Anglo-Saxon Cofgodas, German Kobolds, and Swedish Tomte. The Slavic Domovoi are another example. Often customs related to such beings long outlasted the end of pre-Christian religions in Europe. Others like the Welsh Bwbachod, as well as English and Scottish Brownies are known later still.

The lore for all of these beings is different, of course. As the Tegatis in BNG may differ from the above listed as well, but exists in some similar veins.

As all things have spirits — a principle of Anationton or “Animism” — your dwelling is no exception. Therefore your, yes your home has a spirit. It is important to form a good relationship with that spirit. However, this is not the same as a formal rite in which we invoke a deity. You don’t need to invoke the Tegatis because they’re already there. They live in your home with you.

The Tegatis, when given offering and respect blesses and protects the home. In BNG, there is a synthesis of many origins for the Tegatis. As a known Gaulish take isn’t really to be found, we have taken the step to help establish this piece of Galatis folk culture. As the house spirit has a centuries, and more, long place in many cultures throughout the world. And so they come in many shapes and forms.

On the subject of house spirits, an excerpt from the aptly titled ‘Tradition of the Household Spirits’ by Claude Lecoteux (Kindle edition) has this to say:

The house spirit therefore falls primarily under the jurisdiction of folk religion; he was part of our ancestors’ mental structures and embodied a transcendent element that people could turn to in need. It corrected adverse situations, redressed inequalities, and provided valuable assistance. In short, its existence offered reassurance because it gave physical expression to happiness and to the order without which nothing could prosper.”

And so it is in this tradition. Thus the Tegatis has a deep importance. Even if the way in which we may address this being is done in a less formal manner.

From the experience of members of BNG, the Tegatis actually asks for quite little in return for its blessings. Two things immediately come to mind. The first is to keep the house reasonably clean. After all, the Tegatis lives there as well. They tend to prefer a safe, clean place to live.

The second is regular offerings. As the Tegatis gives, the Cantos Ratî (Circle of Gifting) strongly suggests that we give something back. Whole milk, butter, oatmeal, porridge, incense, or coins tend to be safe offerings. But individual Tegatîs (the plural form of the word) may also have their own tastes and so it’s important to try to be aware of that.

One can fashion their own image of a Tegatis. Or a miniature of a gnome, dwarf, fairy (even in the way they are depicted these days) can work as well. There are many options here. They can be any gender. To offer to the Tegatis in the BNG way is quite simple. When speaking, a simple address, salutation, and offering are sufficient. As the Tegatis specifically blesses and protects the home.

A sample, in both Iextis Galation and English follows:

Subutâ, Tegati

(Hello, Tegatis)

Rodamosnis/Rodamî sinaddatus

(We/I give this offering to you)


(It is done)

Membership in Bessus Nouiogalation

Sindiu 9 Samoni

Bessus Nouiogalation (BNG for short) is a toutâ (people, “nation”). One can practice the traditions of it, or parts of it, and no further attachment is needed. However, all who associate with BNG or identify as Toutioi must follow the îanoi, or you will be found out and removed. Absolutely nothing is required of you except being a good person of decent character (which excludes bigots and the like by default).

A Toution (gender neutral, Toutiâ and Toutios are feminine and masculine, respectively) meaning “citizen” is someone who has chosen to dedicate themselves to the BNG touta (or people). You must actually follow the bessus to be recognized as a toution of the toutâ.

A Toution is someone who feels called to service, this basically means being active in the Nouiogalatis community, as well as interacting with other BNG members so that we get to know each other and can plan events together while respecting personal boundaries.

Below is our Rite for introducing yourself to the Toutâdêuoi (Coming Soon.)

The Delgaunoi or “keepers” tend to the development of BNG itself. There are three currently. The duties of the Delgaunoi are to serve as custodians of BNG, coordinating community involvement in the bessus as well as teaching the practices to those new to our toutâ. They convene to facilitate the creation of the community and release new material as the need or inspiration arises, as well as listening to suggestions from the community.

The Delgaunoi are required to act by the Îanoi, or “virtues” in everything they do. Though perfection isn’t expected, accountability is. Delgaunoi must attend community rites, engage in discussions, and generally help tend to the community. Failure to do so will result in the Delgaunon being removed from their post. Ultimately, their responsibility is to the toutâ, to guide growth, incorporate new lore and add to the custom, and adapt the organizational structure to the needs of the toutâ.

Currently, we tend to interact on Discord, a chat site that has a voice chat option where BNG members meet to build community and participate in group rites and holidays.

While it is not mandatory to interact with other members or spend a significant portion of your time communicating online, we simply ask for a Toution to make a small effort for BNG’s community, as it is a matter of giving back. Being a Toution is about making a firm dedication.

Gregorian Holiday Dates for the Upcoming Coligny Calendar Year

This cycle is for the year 2604 AAC (18:00 8 May 202217:59 27 May 2023).Continue reading “Gregorian Holiday Dates for the Upcoming Coligny Calendar Year”

Îanoi (Virtues)

Gaulish Polytheism

Taranis brings us the Îanoi (Virtues). If one is the center of the wheel, and the rim is that which is literally around us (family, community, the world, etc.), the virtues are the spokes. With all spokes present, the wheel can roll forward. The more spokes present, the smoother the ride.
Too few, and the wheel breaks apart.
Everything is connected in the great cycle of the cosmic order of things, each leading and affecting the other.

Ambactos Rotî (ambassador of the wheel) are those of us that follow the teachings of the wheel of Îanoi. We dedicate our selves to the ever-spinning motion.

(For a reading of this article in English by Caromâros Caitogabros, please click here.)

Îanoi, which in a more literal sense means from Îanos “right, just, correct,” essentially, in this case, “things that are right or correct.” For the purposes of the Bessus Nouiogalation (that is, “Custom of the New Galatîs,” plural form of “Galatis”), it also encompasses the term “virtues.” The understanding of virtues is essential so that we have a guide to live our lives in a way that helps us be better people. In turn, this helps us be better members of our communities.

So why codify something like virtues? The answer to which is simple, they give us something to refer to when we lose our way. The Dêuoi (worshipped beings) fulfill their actions perfectly. But they are Dêuoi. We are Donioi (humans). We aren’t perfect in our actions. No one is, and that’s okay. Every now and again, it doesn’t hurt to remember Nouiogalatis virtues, inspired by those of the ancient Gauls. As they will help us re-center ourselves and keep us in accordance with what is right.

The way we will break this down is by looking at what was thought to be the three laws the Druides (singular: Druið, pronounced “Dru-its”) taught. As you may guess, it translates to Druid. Though with the last law, we’ve been able to apply a more general interpretation to it. As our understanding of that one has changed. You’ll understand when you see it. We will list one law at a time, and there will be four virtues assigned to each to help us live up to each law.

They were originally recorded by Diogenes Laertius’s “Vitæ,” introductory verse 5:

The basic law of the Senoddruides given to us by Diogenes Laertius, “Vitæ,” intro., 5

I. The gods must be worshipped.

II. No evil done.

III. Exercise valour.

Now, we must be aware with the third law that there are multiple interpretations of it. And this is but one translation proffered. Another mentioned “manly behavior”, but even to the Gauls, there’s no reason to assume they only attributed these qualities to men. We must remember that these laws were recorded from someone who wasn’t a Gaul. After all, Onomaris was certainly courageous in leading her people to the east. We also must remember that valor doesn’t just apply to warriors. We can all think of people who have done courageous things far outside the field of combat that uphold notions of valor.

As such, in Bessus Nouiogalation — an independent and contemporary Gaulish inspired custom — we strive to uphold these laws among our community. Developed from our interactions within Galatibessus of which we are a part, and dialogue with members of our specific bessus (custom). They are called the Trirextoues (The Three Laws).

Trirextoues/The Three Laws

  • Dugie Dêuûs – “Honor the Gods”
  • Gneie ne drucon – “Do no evil”
  • Delge āxtam – “Hold your behavior”

With these laws established, there are twelve virtues, and four each helps us align ourselves with these laws. So we will visit each law and discuss relevant virtues that can guide us. It should go without saying that there are more than twelve good qualities that can be exercised as virtues. However, many will relate to the ones discussed.

Let us start with the first law:

Dugie Dêuûs – “Honor the Gods”

Dêuocariâ (piety)
Piety is important because by seeking and acting on honoring the Dêuoi, we bring ourselves closer to them. In doing so, it helps us learn all other right actions. Not every pious person is otherwise virtuous. However, they’re arguably not pious. As part of piety is not simply regular worship, but learning the virtues each of the Dêuoi has to teach.

And a peculiar and striking practice is found among the upper Celts, in connection with the sacred precincts of the gods; as for in the temples and precincts made consecrate in their land, a great amount of gold has been deposited as a dedication to the gods, and not a native of the country ever touches it because of religious scruple, although the Celts are an exceedingly covetous people.

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History V.27

All the Gauls are extremely devoted to superstitious rituals.

Caesar, The Gallic Wars VI.16

Luxtiâ (duty)
The Dêuoi fulfill their duties perfectly. Of course, we do not always fulfill our duties perfectly. It’s part of being human. Though as donioi (humans), we don’t let imperfection stop us from acting. And so it’s important to remind ourselves to act on the duties we agree to — so long as it was made between two groups or people in equal positions of power. Just as the Dêuoi would.

Uissus (wisdom/knowledge)
To be wise is to have knowledge of the teachings of the Dêuoi. As well as how to put them into action. The Druids of the past were exalted for their wisdom, but you don’t have to be one to learn the lessons of the Dêuoi and the world. Nor to act upon them. As wisdom is not passive, but active.

Îanolabâ (right speech)
Something particularly relevant to the Gauls. As Ogmios, what the Romans said their northern neighbors called Hercules. However, (and you can read the account here) Ogmios was shown as older, as opposed to the younger Hercules. The reason why is that the Gauls in particular valued eloquence, as speech can bind wills more effectively than strength.

The Gauls are terrifying in aspect and their voices are deep and altogether harsh; when they meet together they converse with few words and in riddles, hinting darkly at things for the most part and using one word when they mean another; and they like to talk in superlatives, to the end that they may extol themselves and depreciate all other men. They are also boasters and threateners and are fond of pompous language, and yet they have sharp wits and are not without cleverness at learning.

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History V.31

Gneie ne drucon – “Do no evil”

Doniocariâ (compassion)
Compassion is one of the most essential ways to ensure we do good instead of evil. How we respond to the suffering of others, and that we are aware of their pain is one of the most integral parts of the human condition. 

Oigetocâriâ (hospitality)
This is a key one. Through being hospitable, we forge connections and bonds with others, strengthening our communities. Both in person and online, as guest and host relations still apply. An example of Gaulish hospitality can be shown in ‘Library of History‘, from Diodorus Siculus (5.28):

“They invite strangers to their feasts, and do not inquire until after the meal who they are and of what things they stand in need.”

Raton (generosity)
Until recently, people weren’t celebrated for being greedy. As one who is miserly is denying resources to the community. Sharing and generosity remind us that we are all interconnected. Without the goods or services others offer, a society cannot function. By being greedy in our personal lives, we cannot make friends. Generosity goes beyond material wealth, and includes company, kind words, a listening ear. Many qualities we associate with good people even today.

Uiridios (truth)
This is a more complex concept than simply “not lying”. As sometimes, in rare cases, lying is a course of action that serves truth. An example would be lying to protect someone from violence and harm if the assailant was looking for them. To live in truth is to be truthful to one’s actions and be authentic. It is to act in a way that fosters honesty, justice, fairness, and virtue.

Delge āxtam – “Hold your behavior”

Decos (honour)
We’ll get the obvious out of the way first. Honour ties into many other virtues as it is based on how well you live up to all of the other virtues. Thus, reputation ties directly into this as well. Your honour is measured by your integrity and virtue.

Uîrolaniâ (justice)
To be honourable is to also be just. To exercise fairness in our decisions and actions. It also requires the knowledge of making decisions in a just manner. As acting in a fair and just way is important, so is speaking out when justice is being violated. And that takes a little of the next virtue.

Galâ (bravery)
To be brave is another thing that isn’t always easily understood. It is not fearlessness. Bravery is doing something in spite of fear. And bravery is living up to the virtues even when it is inconvenient or when everyone around you disregards them. It’s also about having the fortitude to admit a mistake or flaw, as well as face consequences for one’s wrongdoings. 

They reward brave warriors with the choicest portions of the meat, in the same manner as the poet introduces Ajax as honoured by the chiefs after he returned victorious from his single combat with Hector [in Illiad 7.321]: ‘To Ajax then were given of the backbone / Slices, full-length, unto his honour.

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History V.28

But the leader of the Celtic band soberly looked Alexander in the eye and said, “Nothing. We honor the friendship of a man like you more than anything in the world, but we are afraid of nothing at all. Except,” he added with a grin, “that the sky might fall down on our heads!

Ptolemy Soter quoted by Arrian and other historians

Ûxelliâ (pride)
In the “over culture” we’re often taught that this is not a virtue. However, pride is not synonymous with arrogance. Being proud of one’s deeds is virtuous and can inspire others to also be virtuous. Whereas arrogance is for the self and doesn’t benefit anyone else. Pride also is about fostering a sense of self worth, and in turn recognising the worth of others. When in line with the other virtues, pride can help foster a sense of community and commitment to the common good.

As all traditions have ethical and moral codes, so do we. We’re confident that these virtues are a reasonable approach to right actions based on what was taught to the people by the Druides. There are many other virtues that could be listed but almost all of them are related to those listed in some way. 

When thinking of what to do in a situation, try to remember the Îanoi!

A good practice is to, at the end of your day, take a look at what Îanoi you excelled at and what ones you had trouble with. Make a note of why look back a see what you could have done differently or why to excelled. Our Îanoi is not something talked about but acted on.

Anegion Taranês (Taranis’s Blessing)

Anegion Taranês

Written By Suturcos

Taranis bûe ad tancê

Taruoi eio urextont lanos

Beborbar ara etû blandû

Boues rodîssont blixtus blandus

Ollon buont lanos etic lauenos

Eni sindos diuobi dagobi au sami

Papodius bûe samos

Acitâ ûrâ do aiui

Taranis bûe anuosagitis

Sioxti toutâ doxtont eion

Sepîssonteîa au Crîni

Ueuaseîs rodanon eionon

Crînos gabâsset ollon

Cecameîs rodanon

Eticsiodeîs uer berû

Nauinicos etic tarsusicos

Toutâ uouâdar dû uoretû

Taranis cucloue uediâs eionon

Aisus dedosse brogilos

Duxtir eio Nemetonâ rodîsset

Suanciton etic comarciaton Taranin

Gutuatis dedoue aidûn

Etic rodîsset oigetocâriâ

Do Tigernin Taranin

Eni brogilê râdîssont au Crîni

Cauaros ne cingeð gegalle gonti

Câdareîa tâios etic blinos ion uexti

Dirisetos congestlos eio Belenin

Sindos gestlos Bononiâ exuinnâsset

Tetogiîs deuoressi Crînos

Iâssetîs uritet Crînin uer catumagê

Namanð luciicos, cennâ caletâ etic brussâ

Dercâ eio mextâcâ etic cuuâ, maruicos

Sioxti, Taranis ôde uresson excenos

Ex Crînû bûe anderon, conuidu dextos

Taranis delxti lorgâ eio, Leuceton

Tatanð rodani, eni leucê diuos

Dedosseîs dû catû, entar locâtiê

Au uolti roudi uicii, gutus eni uersî

Crînos delxti cladios eio, etic ceconge

Taranis ueurite beltâ dû beltî, balcos

Condariâ, condariâ, catus coui iâsset

Taranis râdîsset uoxtloi au nitigi

Sinnitigon ne bisiû bâu

Etic ûxamâssetîs Leuceton, bibeîs!

Eni pettî gellî Crînos bogi, aulautos bûe

Taranis bibe bundâ etic râdîsset anegion

“An dagouersâ rinet sindagobundin”

“Rodîumî adbertâ au biuotous”

“Rodîumî adbertâ au brigi”

“Rodîumî adbertâ au bounoniî”

Uoberon atelinâsset, etic rodanâ ateberti

Toutâ rodîssont braton do Taranin

Rodîssont boues, baraos, etic medus

Toutâ comberton eni litû

Sindiu essi iexti Samolitus

Taranis, argos toutîas commantos essi

Taranis’s Blessing

Taranis was at peace

His bulls were made full

They fed on sweet pasture

The cows yielded sweet milk

All were full and happy

In those good days of summer

Each day was summer

The fields were always green

Taranis was unchallenged

However, the people came to Him

They spoke of Crînos

He devoured their fields

Crînos took all

He stole the crops

He sat upon the well

Hungry and thirsty

The people pleaded for help

Taranis heard their pleas

Aisus prepared the grove

His daughter Nemetonâ gave

Welcome and greeting to Taranis

The priest had lit the fire

And gave hospitality

To the lord Taranis

In the grove they spoke of Crînos

A giant no warrior was able to kill

They fell hot and tired when they tried

As sure as the mutual oath to Belenos

That oath Bononiâ witnessed

He swore to vanquish Crînos

He went to meet Crînos on the battlefield

A strange enemy, skin hard and brittle

Eyes sunken and hollow, like death

Yet, Taranis felt heat from afar

From Crînos was the origin, like burning wood

Taranis held His (club, staff?), Leuceton

The thief of the yield, in the light of day

He prepared for battle, in the sight

Of the red haired champion, the voice in the rain

Crînos held his sword and advanced

Taranis met blow for blow, powerful

Raging, raging, the battle thus went

Taranis spoke words of a curse

This curse I will not utter

And he raised Leuceton, he struck!

In a thousand pieces Crînos broke, he washed away

Taranis struck the ground and spoke a blessing

“May good rain reach the good ground”

“I give offering of life”

“I give offering of strength”

“I give offering of prosperity”

The well refilled, and the crops returned

The people gave thanks to Taranis

They gave cows, bread, and mead

The people came together to feast

Today it is called Samolitus

Taranis, the champion of the people is remembered

Anationtos (Soul Path – “Animism”)

(For a reading of this article in English by Caromâros Caitogabros, please click here.)

Often, the topic of discussion is on practice and what is done. How things are to be seen, usually for the application of a structured purpose. Less time is spent discussing belief. Save for, of course, Polytheism. A term that is useful for academic purposes and discourse but not for lived custom.

Though as Polytheism is defined as a belief in many deities and is often blatantly named in customs with Polytheistic outlooks, i.e. Gaulish Polytheism, it doesn’t paint the whole picture. This is why though the term “Gaulish Polytheism” is the most easily recognized, we don’t actually like the use of it. We prefer Galatibessus, “Galatis Custom.”

While what may be called Polytheism is certainly relevant to Galatibessus, in which the actual worship and customs involved within that is Dêuontos or (Path of the Dêuoi). There is that of all beings of the world, Bituatîs. To interact with them, the customs are called Anationtos (or Soul Path). Anation meaning “soul.”

Animism is the belief that all things have a soul, spirit, or life force. This is something that can be found in many customs throughout the world from the past and present. Like the term Polytheism, Animism is normally a term that is a descriptor of customs rather than a custom itself. As in the past, many traditional religions, customs were described by academics as Animism. However, that’s a misnomer as those customs all have names and structures and cannot be so simply described. Many are Animistic, but that is not the whole story. As the customs of many in the world have storied, deep, and distinct structures that cannot be done justice by calling them all one thing.

So, we must look at how Animism can apply to a community-focused custom like Bessus Nouiogalation, or in a greater context that Galatîs might find helpful. To do that, we must look at the Senogalatîs (Ancient Gauls) themselves.

More broadly, Miranda Green’s book ‘Animals in Celtic Life and Myth’ (first sentence in chapter 8):

The Celts were animists: they believed that all aspects of the natural world contained spirits, divine entities with which humans could establish a rapport: animals themselves thus possessed sanctity and symbolism.”

There were deposits of votive offerings in all manner of places, in waters, mounds, mountains, and woods. Also in settlements, many places were candidates for the placement of offerings. These places were also seen to be the residence of Dêuoi, spirits, or the places and things at these places were worshipped themselves.

Animals also are depicted alongside Dêuoi, as well as on their own in prominent figures, statuettes, and in carvings. They, too, had a special place in the function of custom. Though we speak of Senogalatîs, they were no exception to the worship of all manner of things, such as trees, stones, as well as the sun, moon, and fire.

The line between kinds of Dêuoi is blurred, if it exists at all. Any being that is worshipped could be considered a Dêuos. Some are more well known, for sure, and so their place in a society, their mythology, and customs may be more prevalent than others. But this need not exclude those that are less known or of the local environment.

Often in discourse, when new people come to Gaulish customs, they will learn of Dêuoi, and will piece together things with which they are associated. As is normal. However, we must not forget that we are surrounded by spirits with whom it is possible to build rapport and exchange gifts. Participating in the Cantos Râti, the circle of gifting, is not only possible with these beings, but is what the Senogalatîs did as well. As evidenced by finds in springs, wells, on mountains, etc.

An attempt here will be made to make a humble list of spirits that one may find. Some are big, some small that could be thought to coexist along with the Dêuoi, worshipped beings. Beings to be either noticed, exchanged with, or worshipped outright. Perhaps to be placated or avoided.

Using a dialect of Gaulish, Nouiogalaticos, we can construct names for beings. Thus giving us a (New) Gaulish context with which to engage with the many beings that aren’t traditionally listed amongst the Dêuoi, though there is a degree of overlap with otherwise known ones:

  • Drus – The axis, tree, that holds the worlds together.
  • Dêiuos – the “Sky Father”, a reflex of Proto-Indo-European Dyeus. He is representative of Aððus, that which is ordained according to ritual.
  • Litauiâ – the “Earth Mother.” she holds all.
  • Sonnos – the Sun, who lends his power to Dêuoi of light.
  • Lugrâ – the Moon, who holds the measures of time.
  • Aidonâ – the sacred fire (often the hearth) personified, present in the home.
  • Tegatîs – spirits of the house.

(All –atîs endings are plural. To make them singular, just remove the accent. Thus, the singular is -atis.)

  • Caitatîs – spirits of the forest (collectively).
  • Gortiatîs – spirits of the garden
  • Uoberatîs – spirits of springs.
  • Moniiatîs – spirits of the mountains (collectively).
  • Blâtuatîs – spirits of the flowers.
  • Logatîs – spirits of the graveyard, and cemeteries.
  • Croucatîs – spirits of mounds.
  • Moriatîs – spirits of the sea or ocean.
  • Allatatîs – spirits of the wilds (collectively).
  • Abonatîs – spirits of rivers.
  • Ditrebatîs – spirits of the desert.
  • Glendatîs – spirits of the shore or riverbank.
  • Nantuatîs – spirits of the valley.
  • Acaunatîs – spirits of the rock(s) or stone(s).
  • Brigatîs – spirits of the hills.
  • Locuatîs – spirits of the lake or reservoir.
  • Toutatîs – (attested) guardian Dêuoi of tribes, and cities.
  • Matronâs/Materês – (attested) Mother Dêuoi that govern tribes, nations, places, as well as fertility.
  • Suleuiâs – (attested) guardian Dêuoi of people, places, and households. The name means “good guides”, thus also possibly helpful in divination.
  • Cauaros – a giant comparable to Greek Titans.
  • Angos – a dragon, traditionally an enemy of the likes of Taranis and a hoarder of wealth and power.
  • Matican – horned serpent, seen on the Gundestrup Cauldron, held by Carnonos, likely defeated by Taranis or one who is given his power.
  • Dusios– (attested) Dusioi (pl.), crop destroying, seductive, satyr-like beings. Presumably able to shapeshift into human form. Arthocatos has a write-up about the Dusios here.
  • Antumnatis – Antumnatîs (pl.), Otherfolk, those of the Otherworld.
  • Anderoi – (attested) “those below”, chthonic beings.
  • Ueranadoi – “those above”, celestial beings. Presumed based on smaller figures on the Gundestrup Cauldron, as well as the assumption of inhabitants of celestial realms, servants of celestial Dêuoi, etc.
  • Corros – Corroi (pl.), dwarves. Presumably present in caves, hills, mountains. Crafters and smiths.
  • Cucullatis – (attested) Cucullatîs (pl.) hooded spirits, depicted with eggs, daggers, and phallic symbols. Could have healing associations if tied in with Greek Telesphorus.
  • Uanderos – (attested) centaur.
  • Uiduiros – wild man of the woods, woodwose.
  • Uirocû – (attested) werewolf.

As can be seen there are a few attested beings. With the help of the language, we can construct names for beings to aid in the revival of Gaulish language and custom. A lot of the constructed names are relatively vague for two reasons:

  1. Today, those who take up Galatibessus (Gaulish Custom) live all over the world. So if only one location were spoken of, it would not have been helpful to those living in different climates. The reader will know their local environment better than the authors can.
  2. Keeping names vague can help those who are either not as familiar with their local environment, or to be respectful to the spirits known by peoples who previously or currently inhabit a given area.

Be aware though, that often proper names were given. So, if a being of any of these places already has a name and if it’s acceptable, that’s a possibility. Otherwise, the names of established Gaulish Dêuos names can certainly be used. However, if the Dêuos of your local river is named Matronâ, she won’t be the same Matronâ as the Dêuâ of the Marne river. Unless it just so happens, that’s where you are.

As animals also play a role in Animism, a list of animals is provided that are generally well known. Animals often have qualities and/or specific importance to people and communities. There is more than one word for most, so the choices here are relatively arbitrary.

  • Taruos – bull
  • Bous – cow
  • Epos – horse
  • Turcos – boar
  • Muccos – pig
  • Gabros – goat
  • Moltos – ram
  • Damâtis – sheep, ewe
  • – dog
  • Cattos – cat
  • Caliacos – rooster
  • Cercâ – hen
  • Becos – bee
  • Bledinos – wolf
  • Lugus – lynx (not the Dêuos)
  • Louernos – fox
  • Tasgos – badger
  • Casnos – hare
  • Alcos – elk
  • Caruos – stag
  • Elantî – deer
  • Liscoscêtos – turtle
  • Bebrus – beaver
  • Dubrocû – otter
  • Etros – eagle
  • Boduos – crow
  • Garanos – crane
  • Uolcos – falcon, hawk
  • Cauannos – owl
  • Gansos – goose
  • Elarcî – swan
  • Natrix – snake, serpent
  • Esox – salmon
  • Morimilon – whale
  • Morimoccos – dolphin
  • Naupredâ – eel
  • Truxtâ – trout

Lastly, a list of trees is also provided. Again, there is often more than one word for the kind of tree, so the choice is more arbitrary:

  • Deruos – oak
  • Eburos – rowan
  • Betuâ – birch
  • Iuos – yew
  • Aballâ – apple tree
  • Opolos – maple, sycamore
  • Ucetios – pine
  • Bagos – beech
  • Colinnâ – holly
  • Onnos – ash
  • Agriniâ – blackthorn
  • Sapos – fir, spruce
  • Scobis – elder
  • Sparnos – hawthorn
  • Prennon – tree

Taranis etic Uiducauarix (Taranis and the Wood Giant King)

Taranis etic Uiducauarix

Written By Suturcos

Ion donicâ bûar iouincon
Sueionon bitus bûe londos
Temellos rîxti anarecomuâde

Sioxti Dêuoi rodîssont
Etic toutâ diuolcâssont
Dû elus ratobo rodâtoi senti

Ambipellon caitoi bûar litanos
Eni bitû io eiobi bebiuar
Dunnon etic anmadâtus

Eni caitê bebiuar Uiducauaroi
Arduos etic caletos carboi uidus
Ducaris etic temenos… Gorgos

Bebanar do toutâs
Comarcîssont adbertâ
Isse eiâ orxont ollon

Elus bledaniâs gegniiar
Toutiâ readdâsset
Nâuinon croudion beborbar

Papos bledani rix tegegousar
Rix uixît Uiducauarix ad basson
Uiducauarix aiui delxtet boudin

Priton tumîsset papos catus
Leius biuotâ caxtoi senti
Toutâ iâssont do uelitin

Siopesî au abertâ uer brigî
Etic segos exalbû
Tassus etic leucos

Uelitâ iâssont con gutuatîr
Sioponî noibouoxtloi
Uâdarî Taranin

Eni Albiê uediâ clutos essi
Berti uer Suauelê
Sindos uoxtloi aditâsset Taranin

Eni rixtû tarui bebaneîs
Reroute aua brigâ ûxelâ
Trê trebâ, entra caitin

Iâssetîs brogilin Uiducuarîgos
Dâmâ rîgos bûont andon
Taranis aremerti catus

Uiducauarix gresiîs dantes
Tetarueîs concacus uiduous
Eni brigê etic latê

Taranis areuâde lorgâ suesonâ
Ericecuteiis Uiducauarix Taranisc
Bêmman urexti muccus

Catus iâsset trê diun
Ion rasson bûe suallis
Boudi bebronne eni tennê!

Carbos Uiducauarigos bebronne
Tennos, mârotennos, ueuase
Taranis delxtetîs boudin

Nitigon Uiducauarix râdîssetîs
Ion sueson toutâ bebronne
Sin tennos brenset Bitus

Sioxti sindiû, berti boudi
Sedon semiti, berton bassos
Sladiâ slattiâs, bruuon bratû

Texton teni, eiore ollon
Anu Taranî, do toutin
Biuos nouios do aissun bratun

Taranis and the Wood Giant King (English Translation)

When humanity was young
Their world was harsh
Darkness ruled unhindered

Still, the Dêuoi gave
And the people were grateful
For the many blessings given

Surrounding forests were vast
In the world in which they lived
Dark and unforgiving

In the woods lived wood giants
Tall and firm wood bodies
Hostile and crude… Ruthless

They came to the people
They demanded sacrifice
Or they would kill them all

Many years it was done
Some of the people sacrificed
Cruel hunger was fed

Each year a king was chosen
The king would fight the wood giant king
The wood giant king always held victory

The price grew every battle
More lives were taken
The people went to the seeress

She spoke of an offering on a hill
Strength from Albios
Heat and light

The seeress went with a priest
They spoke the sacred words
They invoked Taranis

In Albios the prayer was heard
Carried upon the Good Wind
Those words reached Taranis

In the form of a bull, He came
He charged down from the high hill
Through the village, into the forest

He went to the grove of Uiduacuarix
The king’s retinue was there
Taranis prepared for battle

Uiducauarix gnashed his teeth
He struck with wooden arms
In might and in fury

Taranis brought His lorgâ
The two hit each other
The strike made smoke

The battle went through the day
When hope seemed slight
Victory burned in fire!

The body of Uiducauarix burned
The fire, a great fire consumed
Taranis held victory

A curse, Uiducauarix spoke
When his people burned
The fire would burn the world

However, this day brought victory
Peace as well, the burden dead
Strike of the rod, the multitude grateful

The gift of fire, given to all
From Taranis to the people
A new life to a grateful folk

What is Galatibessus?

Galatibessus is an emerging custom that has its roots in communities engaged in — to varying degrees — the revival of cultures, customs, and religions of the peoples collectively known as Gauls (in contemporary English parlance). In reference to people living in Western Europe and Central in the Iron Age. They spoke the Gaulish language, and while local variants existed in abundance, also shared a similar material culture (La Tène period), worldview, and customs of worship.

The term Galatibessus consists of the words Galatis and bessus. Galatis is a word that was used to refer to those known now as Gauls. Whether it was a name given by them to the Ancient Greeks who first recorded the term or whether the Greeks developed the name themselves is unknown. Today, it is used as an identity by those who practice Galatibessus.

Bessus is decidedly Gaulish in origin. Meaning “mores, habit” (Delamarre, ‘Dictionnaire de la Langue Gauloise’, p. 74), this can reasonably be extended to “custom”. Thus Galatibessus means “Galatis Custom”. Custom in this case refers to the very exercise of being. It is in reference to culture, ethics, worldview, and worship. Galatibessus is all of these things in relation to those of us inspired by the Gauls of the past. This is why we refer to ourselves as Galatîs (this is the plural form of Galatis) — as doing Galatibessus makes us so.

There are many different ways to express and live Galatibessus, but emphasis on all of the aforementioned characteristics: culture, ethics, worship, all parts of worldview, factor into it. Certainly, some may be more interested in one of these things more than others, but it is understood that all of them are necessary for a whole and complete Galatibessus. As such the study of all of these things and the components that comprise them are critically important.

Who can practice Galatibessus?

Galatibessus is open to anyone who seeks to practice it. If one decides to fit the descriptions above, they are a Galatis or can be if they choose to do so. A Galatis is judged by urextoues (deeds, actions).

The culmination of worship, ethics, culture, and worldview inform the Galatis and help contribute to the ongoing process of building Galatibessus. All who feel called to Galatibessus are welcome to be a part of it regardless of skin color, nationality, sexual orientation, gender, sex, physicality, income, etc. A Galatis identity maybe someone’s main identity, or be in tandem with the other or many identities that one may have. As long as one is earnest and sincere in their desire and willing to put in the work of learning and living Galatibessus, they too can be a Galatis. If you are feeling so called, that could very well mean you.

What are some fundamentals of Galatîbessus?

A major component of Galatibessus is to live life in accordance with Assus (order, according to ritual, with connotations of sacred or universal law). What this means is to live in a way that is beneficial to the world, our communities, and ourselves.

Certain virtues help us to do this such as:

Decos (honour)

Raton (generosity, though this also means “grace” amongst many other things)

Oigetocâriâ (hospitality)

– Uiridios (Truth)

– Luxtia (Duty)

Trougocaradon (compassion, mercy)

There are more. These cover a few important ones. What it does not mean is following along with the “status quo” or being unquestioning. If the “status quo” is oppressive or unjust, it is not in line with Aððus. Therefore not in line with order. It is important to mention this as we often see people, and entire systems pervert morals to suit the powerful and not order. There is no order without Uîrolaniâ (Justice).

An absolute fundamental would be learning of Gaulish history, customs, and culture. With a focus on learning what is right to bring forward and make applicable to our own time, and what is best left in the Iron Age. Though it’s important not to fall into presentist thinking. The Gauls were human, fallible, and made mistakes. Contemporary societies are no different. We still often grapple with problems today that they did. Often making the same mistakes, sometimes worse ones. In this case, it is important to remember that the Gauls of the past interacted with a very different set of material conditions than we do, and vice versa.

Just as there are contemporary ideas that would likely have improved things for them (technology notwithstanding), they, too, extolled virtues that would be beneficial for us today. Good judgment and a solid material analysis helps us identify which of those virtues are timeless (hospitality, honor, courage, right speech), and which are best left in the Iron Age (such as patriarchy and ableism). Conversely, their virtues can also reinforce that some contemporary ideas are dangerous, that many preconceived notions of Western thought ought to be challenged and fought (examples: white supremacism, LGBTQ+ phobias, and Western chauvinism).

Through careful application, we can aspire to a vibrant and positive set of customs that are helpful to us today, as opposed to reactionary or romanticist thinking. As tradition is not unmoving or unchanging. This can be seen in many cultures today that remember their cultural roots while also partaking in contemporary societies.

Some examples are things like the revival of material culture, using forms of Gaulish language, and working on newer projects such as myths and constructing practices for different aspects of life.