Bessus Nouiogalation Q&A

(For an audio reading, in English — read by Caromâros Caitogabros — click here.)

About Bessus Nouiogalation

Bessus Nouiogalation (Custom of the New Galatîs) is a Galatibessus tradition. Galatibessus is the Gaulish inspired revivals of custom, culture and religion, which are both intricately intertwined and inseparable. There are many faces of this, with many different intentions. The goal of the work here is to give those interested a foundational set of traditions with a focus on establishing Galatis identity.

Many people out there feel a lack of positive identity, one not tied to colonialism or racism. Finding Galatibessus has been a great help to us. We hope that by sharing our works that together, we can establish a positive identity that is also rooted in a cultural tradition that helps us to reconnect with our roots. Those who seriously wish to participate in Galatibessus, or BNG in particular, and practice are fellow Galatîs if they choose to identify as such. Regardless of any other identity, they may also have.

Just as blood did not make a Gaul in the past (notice how Gauls ceased to exist as such but do have genetic descendants worldwide), and genetics as we know of them now were unknown in the past, they have absolutely no bearing on who can be in Galatibessus. Much less who can worship the Dêuoi (Gods). Genetics do not determine culture, and cannot, shall not determine who is a Galatis. Millions, probably billions likely have at least one Gaulish ancestor anyway. Gaulish identity was determined by culture, religion, and language. So there is no moral or logical reason to exclude anyone by genes.

This is not to minimize the historical impact of the Gauls (mainly in France, also in Switzerland, Belgium, southwest Germany, and many other places in Western and Central Europe all the way to Turkey, in fact). We are interested in a modern form of Ancient Gaulish identity, not in co-opting the modern identities of people living where the Ancient Gauls once did. Some individual Galatis may, but it is not the focus of BNG, or Galatibessus.

Galatibessus does have parameters. It is Polytheist and Animist, meaning we worship many distinct, and individual Ancient Gaulish gods, and see all things as having spirit. We believe that the Dêuoi are real and interact with them through gifting and offering in ritual. As well as prayer, meditations, and other spiritual experiences. Some may also worship foreign deities, and that is okay. Other kinds of spirits, beings, and ancestors (Gaulish and not) are also worshipped or otherwise engaged with in various ways.

What is Bessus Nouiogalation?

Bessus Nouiogalation is a Galatibessus tradition. Galatibessus means “Galatis Custom”, which is focused on the historical language known as Gaulish, the material culture from what is known as the La Tène archeological period, from which the people that spoke this language emerged. Roughly 450 BCE – 50 BCE. As well as the worship of beings collectively referred to as Dêuoi. Dêuos is the singular term. The Dêuoi of course, are those named in that very same Gaulish language.

We seek to create a stable cultural and religious revival. A New Galatis tradition that remembers and learns from the past, but is not limited to it. So while the focus is on a specific period of time, elements and influences from other times, cultures, and places can also be found here to varying extents. The main focus is simply what is prioritised, but it is not exclusively such.

None of this is meaningful if it cannot apply to everyday life. Due to this, we focus much on our Îanoi (virtues). There is also much focus on culture. Historically, and amongst many peoples currently, culture touches all areas of life. Bessus Nouiogalation seeks to do this. This site is hopes to share the content to help this tradition along. In the hopes that it will inspire those interested to be a part of it.

We also hope it helps provide an alternative and resistance to white supremacist “Western” culture. Obviously, this cannot be done by simply practicing Bessus Nouiogalation. But hopefully we can help provide cultural and spiritual support for those involved to engage in the physical, political, ideological, activism to help fight white supremacism, and its fascist, racist, imperialist, and capitalist nature.

So… Is this like a club or organization?

It is an adbessus (tradition) and has a group of people, a toutâ that follow it together. One does not have to be a member of Bessus Nouiogalation to follow our adbessus, or use any of this site’s material.

What does Bessus Nouiogalation mean, anyway?

Bessus is a Gaulish word meaning “custom, practice”. This is a common word used on this site to describe various practices. Tegobessus “house custom” is an example, which are customs of the household. Noiuos means “new”, the final “s” is dropped when combining two words. Galation means “of the Galatîs”, “Galatîs” is plural for “Galatis”, which is Gaulish for “a Gaulish person”. So, Bessus Nouiogalation means “Custom of the New Galatîs”.

We use Galatis instead of Gaul as it is a Gaulish word, helping us differentiate chronologically later usages of the term “Gaul”. As that term was in use long after the language, material culture, and worship of the Dêuoi ceased to exist. We are trying to be a toutâ (people) in some way, and a people need a language. So we use a form of reconstructed Gaulish (Nouiogalaticos) to the best of our abilities when we can, or at least can get away with it. This is why you will see a lot of articles titled in this language, and why such terms are often used. So, it isn’t to show off.

You’re not “folkish” are you?

Bessus Nouiogalation is not only not folkish, we are anti-folkish. As well as antifascist. We oppose fascism, racism, misogyny, and any anti-LGBTQIA+ positions. We also oppose capitalism, classism, ableism, and all other types of bigotry. In time, we also hope to make the content on the site more accessible to folks who may have issues with traditional text reading.

Bessus Nouiogalation is about building a positive identity. An attempt to provide an identity that is not tied to imperialism, colonialism, or hate. Anyone who is called to Bessus Nouiogalation who does not support the above listed things we oppose, and feels a calling to be a Galatis, is welcome.

Surely there are some conditions?

Yes, there are. For example, the Dêuoi are not only real, but distinct individuals. Just as you and I are distinct people. We may have some things in common, but you are you, and I am me. We are not interchangeable. We are not different versions of the same person. So it is with the Dêuoi.

The Dêuoi are mysterious, and it is possible that learning of worshipped beings who have some things in common with ours can help us understand the Dêuoi. However, that does not make them the same as another. Things about Zeus or Thor might help us understand Taranis better, but He is still Taranis, Zeus is Zeus, and Thor is Thor.

Foreign worshipped beings are not simply different versions of ours. Nor are ours simply different versions of theirs. It is absolutely fine for a Galatis (Nouiogalatis or otherwise) to worship beings foreign to us as well. Or for someone in another custom or religion to worship the Dêuoi. There is also no reason to disrespect foreign worshipped beings, especially if we would ask others to respect ours.

There really isn’t much by the way of restrictions or taboos. Don’t disrespect the Dêuoi. Don’t do evil. Do the best you can to be a good person and to fight for what’s right. Try to live an honorable life. Hopefully, we can make the world a better place.

Is this the only legit way to be a Galatis?

Certainly not. There are many ways to be either of these things, and as it should be, we are all free to decide what that means to us. Bessus Nouiogalation exists to provide a structure, culture, and identity to those who want it. Not to force anyone to be a part of it.

The material on this site was developed by Bessus Nouiogalation, but is free to use. One can use, adopt, adapt in part, full, or not at all. We will know who is one of us by what they do. And if you’re not one of us, that’s okay. We hope there might be some things that you find useful here, but if not, that’s okay too.

How much, if at all, one chooses to participate is up to them. We’re not, and have never claimed to be the “one true way”, and we never will. Some folks choose to align with a tribal identity, focusing on only one group of Gauls historically, and that’s fine. Others choose a Galatis identity that is newer like this one. There’s room for all.

Why the political stuff?

If one doesn’t wish to be a part of something that opposes racism, fascism, capitalism, imperialism, and the other ills of the world, then feel free to stay in the over culture (or at least stay away from us). As it already promotes those things. You don’t have to be a full time activist to be here. However, understand that it is good and right to fight those things, and take part in that if you can. This is not a place for bourgeois escapism.

So all of the material is free to use?

Sure. Now, don’t take credit for it if you didn’t do it. But yes, it’s free. Also, a link back is appreciated if you can manage. Especially “pingbacks” as it allows links you use to be up to date, since sometimes information gets updated.

Can one join Bessus Nouioglation if they also are part of other groups or have other practices?

Yes. While Bessus Nouiogalation has a very specific set of foci which it fully intends to maintain, all a member has to do is practice it. If they practice anything else, or a part of other groups or organisations, that is not a problem. We do not seek, nor have we ever sought to regulate what people practice. Many of our own group’s membership are part of other customs, practices, religions, etc either in syncretic or multi-traditional fashion.

The only caveat is that regarding right wing groups. Anyone in a right wing group of any kind is barred from Bessus Nouiogalation. Including fascists, and those who collaborate with them. There are also groups that are particularly toxic out there, and have a poor reputation. As that is subjective and fluid, we simply try to see if a prospective member is of good character.

Are you Pagans?

Some of our membership would identify as Pagans without a doubt. However, Bessus Nouiogalation does not identify as a Pagan organisation. Nor is it involved with the “Polytheist movement” (though we are certainly what people would call polytheistic and animistic in belief). However, some members of Bessus Nouiogalation certainly are.

As such, an individual in Bessus Nouiogalation may identify with Paganism, or the Polytheist movement within it. Organisationally, however, we maintain our independence. So the answer to that question is personal as opposed to organisational. A member of Bessus Nouiogalation is a Nouiogalatis. Whatever else they may also be is up to them. (Obvious exception regarding again, allegiance to right wing groups or ideologies.)

Cingos Ammanês (Calendar)

Gaulish Polytheism, Coligny Calendar

The Sequanni, or Coligny Calendar (used interchangeably) is a parapegma, that is, a bronze calendar with peg holes in it that marked each day. It was discovered in 1897 in Coligny, Ain, France. It is thought to date to the 2nd century CE. Almost everything about the calendar is hotly debated. Some theories are more popular than others, and perhaps we will never all agree. However, there are some context clues from what little can be reasonably assumed about the calendar, and a workable model will be presented.

With that said, let’s explore a little on the matters of timekeeping that we know. Caesar mentions that the Gaulish people considered the day to start at sundown. This isn’t really unusual, the Jewish people reckon the same with their own calendar, for example. Thus the reason their sabbaths start on Friday night. Considering that where they lived at the time of the Gauls were some distance away from the Gauls, starting the day at sundown was not at all uncommon in the ancient world.

Caesar didn’t likely gain anything from making mention of this, and so it is likely a truthful observation. The history of issues (to put it lightly) between Gauls and Romans were certainly not because of their differing approaches to calendars. With that said, we can safely wager that the day begins at sunset.

All the Gauls assert that they are descended from the god Dis, and say that this tradition has been handed down by the Druids. For that reason they compute the divisions of every season, not by the number of days, but of nights; they keep birthdays and the beginnings of months and years in such an order that the day follows the night.

Julius Caesar in The Gallic Wars states (Caesar, DBG 6.18)

We also have a mention of timekeeping in Gaul by Pliny the Elder.

The mistletoe, however, is but rarely found upon the robur; and when found, is gathered with rites replete with religious awe. This is done more particularly on the fifth day of the moon, the day which is the beginning of their months and years, as also of their ages, which, with them, are but thirty years. This day they select because the moon, though not yet in the middle of her course, has already considerable power and influence; and they call her by a name which signifies, in their language, the all-healing.

Pliny Natural History 16.95

Over The Moons

The months have either 30 or 29 days. 30 day months are noted Matis (MAT), the 29 day months Anmatis (ANM). In this respect, we cannot help but notice that the Attic Calendar, used by ancient Athenians, marks months as “full and “hollow”. It is worth noting that Greek culture was prestigious to the Gauls, especially before their fall to the Romans. Sequanni territory was not very far from the Greek colony of Massalia, and it wouldn’t be surprising if the Greeks had some influence on the Sequanni Calendar. This isn’t to say that the ancient Gauls weren’t already using a lunisolar calendar as it were. Which the Sequanni Calendar certainly is.

A lunisolar calendar attempts to reconcile the lunar months with the solar year. This is a relatively old style of timekeeping. Though purely lunar calendars like the Islamic Calendar do exist. Then, of course, the modern calendar, which gets its start in Rome, who weren’t about lunar months, apparently. They were more interested in the solar year. Now, back to Gaul, where the Sun and Moon must agree, at least somewhat. Most of the time, the Sequanni Calendar has twelve months, the first and third year in a five year cycle have thirteen. The first month is Samonios, something that is not debated.

The months start at the first quarter moon. This is an easy moon phase to spot, and it accents the binary fortnight division explained earlier. This centers the full and new moons in each fortnight, half month.

We offer “Are Ambicatû”, or “Before Ambicatus” as a term to date any years before the reign of Ambicatus, a legendary king. After those years, “Sepans Ambicatû” or “Following Ambicatus”. As opposed to BCE and CE or BC and AD. The app we use (from Ucetion) provides the current year. This work (from Helen Mckay) helps with notations.

The Months

At the most basic, and we’ll get to intercalary months in a minute, the months are as such, with rough Gregorian equivalents:

  • Samonios (May-June)
  • Dumannios (June-July)
  • Riuros (July-August)
  • Anagantios (August-September)
  • Ogronios (September-October)
  • Cutios (October-November)
  • Giamonios (November-December)
  • Simiuisonna (December-January)
  • Equos (January-February)
  • Elembiuos (February-March)
  • Edrinios (March-April)
  • Cantlos (April-May)

These are your basic twelve months in order. So, what about those intercalary months? We are less certain. Quimonios (the end of the first segment of the calendar as “QVIMON”) and Rantaranos  (the “r” is speculative, but “ANTARAN” is read from the fifth line of the 32nd month) are the two intercalary months inserted to even out a five year cycle. Before Samonios and Giamonios respectively.

It’s hard to say what many of the months mean. The foundation of most versions is what they believe the month of Samonios means.  Whether it means “summer” or the end of summer. The latter of which is what leads some to believe Samonios is cognate to Samhain. Some believe Samonios means something like “assembly, gathering”.

However, the frame of reference we use to build a conclusion is not Samonios, but Giamonios. Which has less controversy around it, and is agreed upon to mean something related to “winter”. To our knowledge, no one claims it means “winter’s end”. A poor choice then for a summer month. Buttressed by the infix -on- that is seen in many deity names taken to mean “great, divine”.

Therefore, here the calendar starts in the summer. This is not unheard of, as the Attic Calendar, one of many in Ancient Greece, also started in the summer. The Greeks being a big influence on the Gauls makes this essentially unsurprising.


As stated before, the month starts at the first quarter moon. This means the third denotes the halfway point of the month. We see on the calendar “ATENOUX”, meaning “renewal, return”. Also, appearing in a half circle, like the first quarter fits the binary division of the month. “Light” and “Dark” halves.

Matis months have 30 days. Anmatis months have 29 days. The first half month is always 15 days, the second is either 15 or 14 days. The month of Equos alternates in days. Can be 30 or 29. This is of course an attempt to keep the calendar in a lunisolar harmony.

The Coligny Calendar operates in 5 year cycles. This is regardless of the 25, 30, or proposed 19 year Metonic cycle. The last only differs in that one intercalary year is dropped in the last 5 year cycle, taking it down to 4 years.

Why use a Metonic model? This is because changes were already thought to have been made to the calendar. The Coligny Calendar could well have been one. It would have taken very little effort to make one from where the calendar during its time of use. A Metonic cycle is an extremely accurate model that works perpetually. In other words, it’s an attempt to save future generations the trouble of having to make changes to one of the other models. This will make tracking and cataloguing history easier. Making this not only a liturgical, but practical option. A full, all purpose calendar. This also allows for history to be recorded.

Year 1 has the month Quimonios starting the year, then the normal 12 months. Year 3 has Rantaranos before Giamonios, thus the 7th of 13 months in that year. The second, fourth and fifth year are 12 month years. This 5 year cycle happens three times. The fourth time, Year 1 is dropped, making it a grand cycle of 19 years, then the calendar starts over again. Every 61 years, one day is dropped from Equos on the 5th year. If someone had a replica plaque, they’d never have to change it. They’d simply cover up the first year of the fourth cycle.

On 8 May, 2022, the next start of the 19 year cycle will begin. Which means, at the time of writing, we’re on the last part of the current one, that which is only four years. Even if you aren’t using the app, you’ll know when a month begins, as it will be the first quarter moon.

At the date of writing, (11 December, 2019), we are in the month of Giamonios. It started on 4 December. This means you can use the normal 12 months until then to know what months come next.

Here is the app again. Check the day, and keep your eyes on the moon!

For the big picture, check this full reconstruction done by Helen Mckay.

Continue reading “Cingos Ammanês (Calendar)”

Mapats Leuci (Child of Light)

Mapats Leuci

Written By Suturcos

Cenos eiânt noxtiâ eni scâtê

Lanolucrâ uotigû Cintugiamos

Aros rerine dagodagrus

Mapað Leuci gentos essi

Taranis, sueios atîr nertos

Eponâ, sueios matîr canis

Taranis garti dû litou mârou

Dedosseîs sueios taruos uerouos

Ollon dalton eni sin Giamolitû

Beton etic otlon daltar

Cantlâ bûar cecanon

Textâ bûar eiorar

Litus urexti ollon loudos

Ollon iâssont eni sounomâros

Sindâ noxtiâ dunnoisanâ bledniâs

Mapað Leuci robudi cintus

Cenos areollonîs rexti

Braxtiîs, sioxti clutos ne senti

Sioxti sin bûe ne gnâtomapað

Siuomeiîs, brodinâssetîs

Uescâssetîs eni braccâbi urê

Exitâsset eni angnatê

Eni baregiê, Eponâ dîsunâsset

Rumelumâros tetroxtesî

Gegalesî do datlan dâmin

Gênion carnucos cucluoe

Gartisî ueranadoi uarinâ

Exalbiû Eponâ uâdesî

Ueranadoi etic anatiâ

Eni remanni sebraci

Uo do bitun itâssont

Sulabarâtoi senti dagrun

Ion eiâ uer râdar

Sioxti uai do baitin

Sosin sistât eni mantalê

Nâ eiâ axâtoi senti

Matos rodîont adbertâs

Melissiâ isse crampettâs

Dede eni noxtiê essi ueramos

Exteges do tegos sioxon

Beborbon, delxtiiâ nertos

Sioxti, mapað ne arenxti

Cecangon do mâroambin

Adsodîssont dû atrê ambi

Carnoi uer pennû sueionos

Extos adbertâ bîeto rodîsset

Ma buet sindos nepos taraset

Eponâ rodîsset sueionâ torcos

Gegandesî taret

Do allocomarin

Eni Dubnê iâssetsî

Bitus alios bûe exougresî

Sioxti appîsssetsî agedos

Agedos sindos gignesî

Temellâsset cennâ canta sonnû

Sueionos dâmâ couîros

Extoutâs elus au bitû

Sueionos uoxtloi delxtînt

Consinoi extabatî do cloustâs

Amarcos dagos dû Eponî

Uidreîs sentus do Mapaten Leuci

Celicnon Sucelli, giamotegos eni Dubnê

Trê magin Riganiâs Nantosueltiâs

Comarciatâ au anderobi cuclouar

Tetarar magoi cadroâcoi

Blandos bûe mantalâ

Arnxton ad celicnû Sucelli

Ueuritareiâ canta Sucellin

Eponâ adgarti sueionâ uindomapos

Iaccolauenos bûe

Bruttos dû delgû

Sulâmis iâi tegos

Sucellos delget soldurios

Nantosueltâ memode mapatê

Eponâ gigne dligiton dlixti

Nantosueltâ rodît uercon

Eponâ uâde dâmâmâros

Nu gneatsî ara olloblêdnî

Sucellos tagi sin uercon

Nu natiâ anarencon tigû

Arenxont mantalon do tegos

Con Ogmios uednis

Eponâ ambisî tetige

Uer cenomantalû do Albiin

Uer trogî sueionâ

Taranis dîsunâssetîs

Ion Eponâ dede mapos do legion

Dîâcus au sounû

Anboudicos autrâtu

Iâsset do sueionos mapin

Rodîssont anuan Maponos

Etic Taranis memande

Maponos sounît leiûs îs

Mapats Leuci (Child of Light) English

Long were the nights in shadow

The full moon after Cintugiamos

Frost touched the good earth

The Child of Light was born

Taranis, His strong father

Eponâ, His fair mother

Taranis called for a great feast

He prepared His best bull

All shared in this WInter Feast

Food and drink were shared

Songs were sung

Gifts were given

The feast made them weary

All went into a great sleep

Those darkest nights of the year

The Child of Light awoke first

Long before all, He rose

He cried, but none heard

But this was no normal child

He walked, He talked

He dressed in a garb of green

He went into the unknown

In the morning, Eponâ awoke

Great horror overcame Her

She called to assembly a retinue

The roar of the carnyx was heard

She called the celestial troop

Out of Albios, Eponâ led

Celestial beings and spirits

In a spectral ride

Downward to Bitus they went

They blessed the earth

Over wherever they rode

But woe to the fool

That stands in Their path

Lest they be taken away

The wise give offerings

Sweet cakes or pancakes

Left in the night, it is best

From house to house they searched

They were fed, they kept strength

However, the Child was not found

They advanced to the Great River

They stopped for the Father of the River

Antlers upon His head

But offering must be given

If it is that one is to pass

Eponâ gave Her torc

She was allowed to pass

To the other place

Into Dubnos She went

A strange world it was She entered

However, She saw a face

It was a face that She knew

Darkened skin by the sun

His loyal retinue

From the many nations of the world

His words they held

As chains from tongue to ears

A good sight for Eponâ

He knew the way to the Child of Light

The Hall of Sucellos, the winter home in Dubnos

Through the fields of Queen Nantosueltâ

Greetings from chthonic beings were heard

They passed wonderous fields

Smooth were the roads

They arrived at the hall of Sucellos

They were met by Him

Eponâ claimed Her beloved Son

He was safe and healthy

Eager for embrace

Ready to go home

Sucellos kept watch

Nantosueltâ took care of the child

Eponâ knew a debt was owed

Nantosueltâ gave a task

Eponâ led a great retinue

Now She would do this every year

Sucellos agreed to the task

Now the lost souls

Could find their way home

With Ogmios guiding

Eponâ departed

Upon the long road to Albios

Upon Her return

Taranis awoke

When Eponâ put the Son to bed

Sluggish from sleep

Unaware of the journey

Went to His Son

They gave the name Maponos

And Taranis thought

Maponos slept longer than He

Tegobessus I: Sacred Space

Choose a place in which to do Dugiion, that is worship in your home. If you live in a fancy and/or very rustic establishment, you might already have something like a hearth. Odds are, you don’t. In that case, simply use a good surface as an Uentâ, or place of offering/sacrifice. This place will be the focal point of your Tegobessus (House Custom).

Place relevant stuff on it. At minimum, a candle and a bowl. Images or symbols of Dêuoi are all the better! Added dishes for offerings are fine too. Optimally, you’ll want this to face Ari (East). If not Ari, then try Dexouâ (South). If it has to face Eri (West) or Tutos (North), so be it. While East is optimal, something is better than nothing.

Now, what to put upon this Uentâ? At bare minimum you’ll need a Cumbâ (Bowl, also means “valley”, but is not pertinent to this) and a Dagilâ (candle). Whether or not it’s electric isn’t a big deal. But these are the bare minimums. The Cumbâ to hold the Addatus (offering), the Dagilâ for the Aidû (flame), of course.

Of course, many will want to add Deluâs (images) of various Dêuoi (Worshipped Beings). Or symbols: A Rotos (wheel) for Taranis, an Epos (horse) related symbol for Eponâ, and so on. These certainly add character and help focus attention in a ritual on the deuos in question.

We have the why and how. Now for the when:

Planning rites are essential. Try to do them on a regular basis. The point is not to be perfect but to make an attempt at regularity. Do your best, but don’t beat yourself up over not being perfect. Just make it a goal to do the rites on a regular basis. This will allow for a rhythm to your rituals.

There are plenty of intervals on which one might choose to do rites. They could be done daily, weekly, bi-monthly, but at minimum once a month. Another suggestion is moon phases.

One of the most important things to do before a Rite is that of Glanosâgon (Purification). That means making yourself clean and ritually pure. To do this, you may wish to bathe or shower before ritual. At the least it is important to wash the hands and face. As the Gauls were known for using soap, some kind of bar soap would be a nice continuation of that tradition.

Wash hands and say: Glanolamâs “Clean hands”
Swipe your forehead and say:  Glanobritus “Clean mind”
Swipe down the face with both hands and say: Glananation “Clean soul” (This is based on the idea of the soul residing in the head.)

Purify the sacred space

One must purify the sacred space. To do this, we will invoke Nemetonâ. This is vital to establish your space or making a new one.
We will use Juniper as this was used by the Senogalatis to clear away snakes and to help with bits from poisonous creatures. So we will use it to clear away any unwanted energies in our space.
You will now need a Dagilâ (Candle) to represent Aidona.

Light your Juniper and walk around your area or make a motion around your area in a sunwise circle three times to represent the three realms of Drus (AlbiosBitus, and Dubnos). As you do this, say the below invocation.

Uediumii Nemetonan
(I invoke Nemetonâ)

Donâ anton
Dah-nah an-ton
(Lady of the Borders)

Uernâ caddî
Woh-man-yah cad-dee.
(Guardian of the Sacred)

Delgaunâ Marâ
Del-gow-nah maw-rah.
(The Great Keeper)

Rodâi caddion uentî, etic aneges uritto duscâxslûs
Roh-daw-ee cad-dee-on wen-tee, eh-tick ah-neg-es ew-ree-toh dus-cawck-sloose
(You give sacredness to the offering space, and you protect against bad spirits)

Datiomos addatun etic brâtun tei
Dat-yoh-mos ad-da-tun eh-tick braw-tewn tey
(We give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus – Offering]

Arxiomos inedon sindon uregetorio caddon
Ark-yoh-mos in-eh-don sin-don oo-reh-geh-tor-yoh cad-don
(I ask that this place be made sacred)

Slanon tei
Slah-non tey
(Cheer to you)

Brâtun tei
Braw-toon tey
(Thanks to you)

Molâtâmor Nemetonan
Moh-law-taw-mor Nem-eh-toh-nan
(I praise Nemetonâ)

(It is done)

Welcoming Aidona

Aidonâ is the name we give to the spirit of the fire; basically, the hearth personified. We are introducing Aidonâ into our space for the first time so this is a very important step for us.

After the invocation, say
Oibelumî (Oibelomos) sinaidû Aidoniâs.
I light (We light) this flame of Aidonâ.

Say some words welcoming Aidonâ
This is very personal and needs to come from you.

[Addatus – Offering]
After the offering, take a few moments to kneel, bow, or sit and commune with the recipient(s)

Bratûn te,

(Thanks to you,

Take a moment of Tauson (Silence).

Andegenton (Creation)

Written By Suturcos

Pad bûe arepan sinbitus? Eðði ne uidrar.

Extos bitus bûe gentos in ueglê.

Etic exbrissû leuci bitus logitos eðði!

Tenos etic dubron segon uregont neglâ.

Anciuogi endo taruos etic bousc.

Duî bûar mâros etic nertos.

Bous sueiâ anuan bûe Bouindâ.

Bebortisî exneglî.

Bûesî lanos blixtuos.

Taruos sueios anuan bûe Uindotaruos.

Bebortiîs blixtuos Bouindiâs.

Bûeîs lanos segos.

Bouindâ bebortisî ara leius neglî.

Etic Uindotaruos rodasset satos Bouindin.

Duî mapates bûar gentos.

Oinos mapað bûe gentos exuambî.

Sueiâ anuan bûe Litauiâ.

Bûesî uimpis etic letanâ.

Oinos mapað bûe gentos exanatlâ.

Sueios anuan bûe Dêiuos.

Bûeîs nertos etic axros.

Bûeîs Uindotaruos lauenos.

Coni îs adpipise ne comarionîsio.

Etic suâ îs urexti tremnâ.

Îs nexet do îs nouioueniî.

Etic roditîs lanocarbos.

Sueios adbertos ossimios.

Ion Dêiuos bûe aissi.

Bûeîs do orxtet Uinodtaruos.

Suâ bûe labarâtar.

Ponc amman aditâssetîs gegniie.

Tetaraueîs, axiîs, etic darnâssetîs!

Uindotaruos câde do sueios basson.

Dêiuos cecate pennos Uindotarui.

Sueios pennos bebue Sonnos.

Sueios dacruâ bebue ðirâs.

Litauiâ gabâsset crouos Uindotarui.

Urextetsî lucaton dubnos.

Etic Drus aucambnocnamis Uindotarui.

Exdrus câde satoi entra lucaton.

Sindos satoi tumîssont eni lucatê.

Adaxti tumon nouiobiuotus!

Senti Anadeuîs, senti Cauaroi.

Eiâ ueuason cicâ Uindotarui.

Eiâ tumîssont abrobalcos.

Dêiuos etic Litauiâ semiti tumîssont.

Cuprinnon ies urextont leius mapates.

Cintamos sindi bûar tri brateres.

Centubrater bûe ratos etic carâtacos.

Allobrater bûe nertos etic matis.

Tritobrater bûe pennosenos etic lugos.

Cauaroi negegniiar sudeaxtos sinueniâ.

Ies urextont agron uritto ollon.

Agron cena anton con mapatobi Dêiui.

Cicâ Uindotarui bûe adgossû ueuase.

Eni biccocomariê, ollon nâuaont.

Cauaroi baniînt etic uasînt mapates Dêiui.

Litauiâ urextet cagron eni aremertê.

Exo ueniâ ne uassont ci do aiuî.

Bouindâ gigne gegniie neððamos.

Bouindâ adberti suesi uenin.

Benontîeiî etic urexont Bitus.

Contrummocradiobi, ies gegniiar sin.

Centubrater beii uer pennos sueiâ.

Allobrater gabâsset anatlâ sueiâ.

Tritobrater sceciie carbos sueiâ.

Canti gabâssont pettiâs sueiâ.

Etic urextont sinbitus excarbos.

Sinmârosueliâ essid Andegenton.

Tribrateres rodîssont Litauian.

Rodîssontiis cicâ Bouindiâs.

Sincicâ texti sueionos matîr.

Tribrateres rodîssont Dêiuos.

Rodîssontiis anatlâ Bouindiâs.

Dêiuos urextet sin sueios tegos.

Tri gabâssont pennos Bouindiâs.

Cecatoniis pennos arduos.

Pennos Bouindiâs bebue lucrâ.

Cruuon Bouindiâs bebue morîa.

Blixtos Bouindiâs bebue abonâs.

Elus cauaroi bâditos buont.

Cnamîs Bouindiâs bebue monedîs.

Dantâ Bouindiâs bebue magnîs.

Uoltoi Bouindiâs bebue caitoi.

Elus biuotoues bebane exbouindî.

Etic leius exsenolucatû Uindotarui.

Nu rerine comariâ iaont.

Satoi exlucaton beube êscoi.

Rioêscoi bebue craxantoi.

Riocraxantoi bebue natriges.

Rionatriges bebue atares.

Allonatriges bebue mîliâ.

Biuotus tumîsset inammani.

Ollon andederciâ centuuenîas Dêuion.

Cauaroi etic Dêuoi sindiun catus.

Tribrateres gabâsset sueionos comariâ.

Centubrater gabâsset Dumnos.

Allobrater gabâsset Albios.

Tritobrater gabâsset Bitus.

Andegenton (Creation) English Translation

What was before this world? It is not known.

But the world was born in darkness.

And in a burst of light the world set forth!

Fire and water came together to form mist.

Coming from that mist, (a) cow and (a) bull.

(The) two were great and strong.

(The) cow, her name was Bouindâ.

She fed on mists.

She was full (of) milk.

(The) bull, his name was Uindotaruos.

He fed upon (the) milk (of) Bouindâ.

He was full (of) strength.

Bouindâ fed on more mist.

And Uindotaruos gave His seed to Her.

Two children were born.

One child was born from the womb.

Her name was Litauiâ.

She was pretty and broad.

One child was born from breath.

His name was Dêiuos.

He was strong and tall.

(Hence they aren’t technically related.)

Uindotaruos, He was glad.

Though He saw no place for Him(self anymore).

And so He made a plan.

He would die for His new family.

And give His full body.

His final offering.

When Dêiuos was (of) age.

He was (to) kill Uindotaruos.

So it was spoken.

When (the) time approached, He did.

He struck, He strangled, He tore (Uindotaruos)!

Uindotaruos fell (to) His death.

Dêiuos threw (the) head (of) Uindotaruos.

His head became (the) sun.

His tears became (the) stars.

Litauiâ took the blood (of) Uindotaruos.

She made a deep well.

And Drus (the world tree) from the backbone (of) Uindotaruos.

From Drus, seeds fell into (the) well.

These seeds grew in (the) well.

Setting in motion new life!

They are (the) Ungods, they are (the) Cauaroi (giants).

They fed on (the) flesh (of) Uindotaruos.

They grew very powerful.

Dêiuos and Litauiâ also grew.

Conjoined, They made many children.

Foremost of These were three brothers.

(The) first brother was kind and generous.

(The) second brother was strong and good.

(The) third brother was wise beyond His years and cunning.

(The) Cauaroi did not welcome this new family.

They made war against all.

War without end against (the) children (of) Dêiuos.

(The) flesh (of) Unidotaruos had been almost consumed.

In (the) little place, all would hunger.

(The) Cauaroi would (then) come (for the) children (of) Dêiuos.

Litauiâ made (a) fort in preparation.

But (the) family could not stay (there) forever.

Bouindâ knew (what had) to be done next.

Bouindâ offered Herself (to the) family.

They would tear Her apart (to) make (the) world (as it is now).

With heavy hearts, They did this.

(The) first brother struck Her upon Her head.

(The) second brother took Her breath.

(The) third brother cut open Her body.

Together They took the pieces (of) Her.

They made this world out of Her body.

This great wonder that is creation.

(The) three brothers gave (to) Litauiâ.

They gave Her (the) flesh (of) Bouindâ.

This flesh covered Their Mother.

(The) three brothers gave to Dêiuos.

They gave Him (the) breath (of) Bouindâ.

Dêiuos made this His home.

(The) three took (the) skull (of) Bouindâ.

They threw (the) skull high.

(The) skull (of) Bouindâ became (the) moon.

(The) blood (of) Bouindâ became (the) seas.

(The) milk (of) Bouindâ became (the) rivers.

Many (of the) Cauaroi had drowned.

(The) bones (of) Bouindâ made (the) mountains.

(The) teeth (of) Bouindâ made (the) stones.

(The) hair (of) Bouindâ made (the) forests.

Many lives came (from) Bouindâ.

And more (still from the) old well (of) Uindotaruos.

Now (as) they had (a) place to go.

Seeds from (the) well became fish.

Some fish became toads (amphibians).

Some toads became snakes (reptiles).

Some snakes became birds.

Other snakes became animals (mammals).

Life grew in time.

All under (the) eyes (of) this first family (of) Dêuion.

Cauaroi and Dêuîs to this day fight.

(The) three brothers took their own places.

(The) first brother took Dumnos.

(The) second brother took Albios.

(The) third brother took Bitus.

Trasnemos (Astronomy)

The idea here is to build the foundation of a Gaulish astronomy. Hoping that we can start a move toward bringing more Galatis focus into our lives and works. The ultimate goal of course being the furthering and expansion of ideas and avenues of exploration for all Galatîs.

Most of this work comes from a work based on Gaulish language scholarship, but is made to be used as a living language: Nouiogalaticos. The works of which have yet to be published.

Be aware, however, that we had to play a little fast and loose with the language. So there are plenty of words that were Gallicised. Others may dispute them, but if we’re waiting to be perfect and always agreeable to everyone, we’ll get nothing done.

Within, you will find that most figures from Mediterranean lore have been given Gaulish figures in their place. As it was common for the Gauls to take something from the Mediterranean world and inject their own worldview and ideas.

Trasnemos Galation (A Galatîs Astrnomy)

Reuîs (Planets):

Mercury – Galatos
Venus – Ðironâ
Earth – Litauiâ
Mars – Camulos
Jupiter – Taranis
Saturn – Sucellos
Uranus – Dêiuos
Neptune – Grannos

Allocarboi (Other Bodies):
Sun – Sonnos
Moon – Lugrâ
Pluto – Iêmonos

Consseriâ (Constellations):

Andromeda – Cammâ (Gaulish heroine)
Argo Navis – Mârolongos (Great Ship)
Aquarius – Alaunâ (A Dêuâ)
Aquila – Etros Taranês (Eagle of Taranis)
Ara – Carnâ (Altar, in this case stacked stones)
Aries – Moltos (Ram)
Auriga – Eponâ (A Dêuâ)
Boötes – Intarabus (A Dêuos)
Cancer – Crancos (Crab)
Canis Major – Cû Sucelli (Hound of Sucellos)
Canis Minor – Colignos (Lap Dog)
Capricorn – Morigabros (Sea Goat)
Cassiopeia – Rosmertâ (A Dêuâ)
Centaurus – Uanderos (Centaur)
Cepheus – Ambicatus (Gaulish King from legend)
Centus – Morimilon (Whale)
Corona Australis – Samorix (Summer King, my own idea)
Corona Borealis – Giamorix (Winter King, ditto)
Corvus – Catuboduâ (A Dêuâ)
Crater – Annâ (Cup)
Cyngus – Elârci (Swan)
Delphinus – Morimoccus (Dolphin, lit. Sea Pig. That’s what I was given. Don’t at me.)
Draco – Angos (Dragon)
Equuelus – Epilos (Little Horse)
Eridanus – Abonâ Ðirânon (River of Stars)
Gemini – Iunoi (Twins)
Hercules – Ogmios (A Dêuos)
Hydra – Andangianos (Eneny of Taranis, our own idea)
Leo – Lugus (A Dêuos)
Lepus – Casnos (Hare)
Libra – Talos (Balance)
Lupus – Lucos (Wolf)
Lyra – Crottos (Lyre)
Ophiuchus – Natrix Carnoni (Serpent of Carnonos)
Orion – Aisus (A Dêuos)
Pegasus – Epos Etrontos (Winged Horse)
Perseus – Loucetios (A Dêuos)
Pisces – Esoges (Salmon)
Piscis Australis – Esoges Dexsiuî (Southern Salmon)
Sagitta – Isos (Arrow)
Sagittarius – Belinos (A Dêuos)
Scorpio – Scorpios (Scorpion)
Serpens – Natrix Ðironiâs (Serpent)
Taurus – Taruos (Bull)
Triangle – Triocelon (Triangle)
Ursa Major – Andarta (A Dêuâ)
Ursa Minor – Artiû (A Dêuâ)
Virgo – Nemetonâ (A Dêuâ)

What isn’t in Nouiogalaticos, but a couple of words, we simply tried to work forward from Proto Indo-European, or directly loaned and Gallicised from Ancient Greek.

As was mentioned, we know that there are a lot of speculations on the Gaulish language and that any diealect of it is impossible to know in full. However, if Galatîs are to move forward, we must have a language.

Eludêuoi Galation

Written By Suturcos

In nemê, uerbitû, coetic andernos
Elus Dêuoi atrebânt ollocomariâ
In nemê, uerbitû, coetic andernos
Elus Dêuoi rodînt eiononos textiâ nos
In nemê, uerbitû, coetic andernos
Eiâ arcînt textiâ ansonon coetic anse

Ogme, Senatîr Galation, cintus ansonon
Mâros in labî, nertê, etic in uissû
Sirona, centusirâ eni nemê, uoberiâs
Sistâi entar noxtion etic dîus
Lugu, nemnalîtar latis, serxetar ollon
Gaisos in lamî, ollos cerdâs uidras

Tarani, Tigernos Nemi, delges louceton
Anegestû ollos, etic uedes nîs uîridin
Epona, Riganâ Bitous, eporediâ cingetâ
Entar bitoues, delgestû dagodagrus
Mapone, Mapað Leuci, selgouiros
Brictodêuos, lanos segi etic noibianton

Catubodua, uedes orxtocingetoi
Con sueson etanîs, ênt magû anextlon
Sucelle, delges textiâ Litauiâs ollû
Aminos uarinodoniâ, ordos in lamî
Nantosuelta, blatoues magi melissiâs
Textiâ elus beres ollon Antumnû

Brigindonâ, Mâracingetâ, catuâi brunion
Congaisû etic cladiû, namantes cedont
Carnone, delges agesilon etic brigon
Sistâi tê in treuerê dubnos in caitê
Suleuia, Riganâ Aidulegios, noibotenâ
Uedestû etic meððu tegos dagos

Matrona, Drunâdubriâ, delges bituiton
Rodâma sueson textiâ nantun etic maglon
Belinê, segos leuci, nertus britiâs carbic
Anegestû contrebiâs etic slanosagies
Rosmertâ, Riganâ Corii, Marâuelitâ
Appisetû antar toncetiâ olli

Camule, carnoi molti, cladios in lamî
Scîestû namantes, suergos, etic obnon
Artiu, Matîr Artonon, maros in nertê
Duces artoi etic ollos au dubnû giamû
Esu, Matodêuos, etic maros in catû
Rodî uissus to doniâ sagiontio

In nemê, uerbitû, coetic andernos
Elus Dêuoi atrebânt ollocomariâ
In nemê, uerbitû, coetic andernos
Elus Dêuoi rodînt eiononos textiâ nos
In nemê, uerbitû, coetic andernos
Eiâ arcînt textiâ ansonon coetic anse

(Rough Translation)

The Many Dêuoi of the Galatîs

In the sky, on the earth, and also below
Many Gods inhabit all places
In the sky, on the earth, and also below
Many Gods give their gifts to us
In the sky, on the earth, and also below
They ask gifts of us in return

Ogmios, Ancestor of Galatîs, first of ours
Great in speech, strength, and wisdom
Sironâ, first star in the sky, of the well
You stand between night and day
Lugus, celebrated hero, loved by all
Spear in hand, all skills known

Taranis, Lord of the Sky, you hold lightning
You protect all, and lead us to Truth
Eponâ, Queen of Earth, horse riding warrior
You go between worlds, you hold good earth
Maponos, Child of Light, hunter
Magic god, full in energy and youth

Cathubouâ, you lead the slain warriors
With your wings to the blessed plain
Sucellos, you hold gifts of Earth for all
Friend of the commoner, mallet in hand
Nantosueltâ, sweet flowers of the field
Many gifts you bring from Antumnos

Brigantiâ, great warrior, you guard the hill
With spear and sword, enemies fall
Carnonos, you hold wealth and power
You stand in the deep crossroads in the woods
Suleuiâ, Queen of the Hearth, sacred fire
You guide and govern the good home

Matrona, swift waters, you hold life
You give your gifts to the valley and plain
Belenos, energy of the light, strong of body and mind
You defend the cities and heal
Rosmertâ, Queen of the Warband, Great Seeress
You see into the fates of all

Camulos, horns of the ram, sword in hand
You cut (down) enemies, disease and fear
Artionis, Mother of Bears, great in strength
You lead the bears and all from dark winter
Esus, wise god, great in war
You give wisdom to those who seek

In the sky, on the earth, and also below
Many Gods inhabit all places
In the sky, on the earth, and also below
Many Gods give their gifts to us
In the sky, on the earth, and also below
They ask gifts of us in return

Îuoi (Holidays)

Jump to the list of Îuoi (Holidays)

As with any other custom, a Gaulish custom one needs holidays. Those special times of year where we come together to observe specific Dêuoi for specific reasons. As well as attuning ourselves to the cycle of the seasons and what that means for us. Bessus Nouiogalation is no exception.

In a previous article, we talked about the Sequanni / Coligny Calendar. The IVOS clusters on the calendar are thought to denote holidays. That being the case, it gives us an idea of where to put at least some holidays. Therefore, it’s fitting to use those clusters to put forth a kind of list of holidays. Along with that, using their placements in the year, we’ll try to use that as a guide to figure out both what to call these holidays and what they may be about. In this way, even if we don’t know the original traditions, we can be inspired to develop some of our own.

For reference sake, we use the BNG Coligny Calendar designed by Ucetion. We feel that they have put together a great working model of the calendar, and we are proud of Ucetion for putting it together. Helen Mckay’s work here is an excellent companion to it.

In the history of the calendar, the length of an age, or where the calendar completed its cycle, went from 30 to 25 years as time went by. As the Metonic cycle is the most accurate as far as lunisolar timekeeping goes, as without it, there is quite an eventual drift. It seems to be a good borrowing. This puts the calendar’s full cycle at 19 years. Remembering that the calendar was originally in a temple to Apollo, who was said to make a journey to the land of the Hyperboreans (a mythic people who lived “beyond the lands of the Celts”) every 19 years. So, it’s far from the least plausible leap.

By retaining the names of the months and being able to keep up with the same methodology of a lunisolar calendar, we see a synthesis of retaining the old while being able to adapt and borrow as the Gauls themselves did.

So, with that reference noted, we should also say that even without the Metonic adaptation, the holidays are still in the same time range. Though the purpose of this article is not to discuss the calendar, we wanted to give some background into the frame of reference we use for the holidays. What we see when looking at the calendar is that there are several points in the year where the notation ‘IVOS’ is attached to several days in a row.

As Iuos notations cluster around certain times of the year, it can be assumed that they are likely holidays. It cannot be said for sure how long a given holiday was observed. As the clusters may point to a range of time in which it was acceptable to observe a given holiday. The pain with the Iuos clusters is that though they are consistent, they still show up in different months on the calendar throughout the years.

Though intercalations are involved with that slight distortion, the timing of the holidays themselves are actually completely consistent. So, on the calendar, the clusters will show up on one month or one other, two at the most. However, it is still consistent because these clusters are marked by one specific moon. In other words, an Iuos cluster may show up around 1 Simiuisonna one year, and near 1 Equos the next, but it will be the same moon in the lunar cycle.

The months start at the first quarter moon, in line with Pliny the Elder’s statement that the Gauls started their months six days after the new moon. This assumes a first quarter start, and a first quarter moon is easily visible. If this sounds confusing, and it did to me at first, it will be made clear now in this list of holidays. Remember that the moon is your friend. Without further ado, the holidays of Bessus Nouiogalation:

  • Sonnocingos Nouios “New Year” – This one needs the calendar linked above for reference.  As it’s the first day on the calendar itself. 1 Samonios is the date most years. Whenever there is an intercalary month of Quimonios, it is 1 Quimonios.
  • Diios Nouiogalation “Day of the New Galatîs” – The Birthday of Bessus Nouiogalation always falls on is 9 Samoni.
  • Cintusamos “Start of Summer” – Always two first quarter moons before the summer solstice.
  • Samolitus “Summer Feast” – Always the first quarter moon before the summer solstice.
  • Trinox Samoni “Three nights of Samonios” – This one also requires the app linked above. Starts on 17 Samonios. Usually, the third quarter moon closest to the summer solstice. However, it can be on or just after it. No more than a week after.
  • Cerdolitus “Crafting Feast” – Third quarter moon before Cintumessus below.
  • Cintumessus “First Harvest” – Always two first quarter moons after the summer solstice.
  • Catus Alisiâs “Battle of Alessia” – Third quarter moon closest to the autumn equinox. Always 17 Ogronios.
  • Cintugiamos “Start of Winter” – Two first quarter moons before the winter solstice.
  • Giamolitus “Winter Feast” – Full moon closest to the winter solstice.
  • Adbiuos “To Life, Quickening” – Two first quarter moons after the winter solstice.
  • Uisonnalitus “Spring Feast” – Just after the new moon closest to the spring equinox.
  • Gregorian Holiday Dates for the Upcoming Coligny Calendar Year
  • Îuoi in Îanê (Holidays in Virtue)

These are the holidays, or as has been jested about “Gaulidays” that we have come to a conclusion upon. At a later date, we will look at each holiday in depth. Until then, thanks for reading!

Taranis etic Andenamatos

Written By Suturcos

The bounty of the harvest was gathered
And the beasts were counted to be culled
In those times long ago done as is today
The fires burning bright like Suns at night
Songs sung by fires and music was heard
Unbridled the joy from the kin of Mannus
They reveled in the gifts the Dêuoi gave
Who taught them how to live and feast
As they too did this at their long tables

For the wine and mead and beer flowed
The beef and mutton and pork roasting
Departed souls of the dead even joined
All sat at tables to partake in the bounty
Not a seat unfilled and none turned away
As was and is the way of Dêuoi is it ours
And it was for those of the past as well
The Dagouello intact and kept in place
Keeping with old customs of hospitality

The Dêuoi looked upon with satisfaction
With rites remembered, they were pleased
In Albios as in Bitus as in Dumnos it was
But those depths of Dumnos held much
Not even those who dwelled it knew of all
And none could foresee what did follow
From the darkest of depths one dwelled
He did from those deep roots of Bilios
Where He fed and took of the deep water

He did not care for Bilios nor the world
The Carnonatrix this creature was named
First of those mighty foes of the Dêuoi
Who sought to tear down the old Bilios
That the heavens may fall to the earth
For which all feared above anything else
But he did seek to bring Albios downward
That it may be he alone to rule the worlds
He bade his time and now arose to Bitus

All became tired after their great feast
It was then that everyone sought rest
As did life giving Litauiâ from Her work
The price of such bounties being given
But something seemed different this time
For the air around them was quite cold
The sky seemed to stay dark for longer
None knew why this was and they worried
They took arms and looked for the cause

In the darkness, none could dare search
To grasp about rather blindly in the night
How long those dark nights indeed were
That Carnonatrix under that deep cover
Knew old magics of a kind not spoken
He would take from the unsuspecting
Devour them when they were unprepared
For he was an enemy to all the world
And hated they who made life from it

Those old magics with a great price came
In the flesh and blood of those consumed
For new form and shape the Carnonatrix
A mighty strong body and limbs formed
He would be known as the Andenamatos
The foe from darkest depths of Dumnos
With arms and legs of serpents was he
All of the world he would make barren
For he consumed all that was around him

The trees would offer their leaves to him
A sacrifice to save their own barks it was
Only evergreen spines kept him at bay
For they surely wouldn’t go down too well
Holly and ivy just enough out of the way
That they could hide from that predator
His soulless touch made the water freeze
Those Ladies of the Waters his captives
Birds had to hide or to flee for their lives

The poor creatures that hide to this day
When they retreat to dens and tree holes
Artio, She did guide them there safely
Protecting them from this predator of all
Among the bears, all followed their lead
The cold, the dark, the chill inescapable
At home the women and men would hide
It looked to be that all the world was lost
Only the howls of wind and wolves heard

Two quarter moons passed from the dark
And Brigantiâ would wake from slumber
Upon a hill She went to a spring at dawn
There She freed the Dawn Maiden Sulis
Who traveled to Taranis who slept deep
As Eponâ held Her son, He let out a cry
One that was so loud that all had heard
Even Taranis could not sleep through it
And His rage was felt upon all the world

He then called out, and all did hear Him
But with no proper weapon to be found
For He did not fancy the spear or sword
But He needed something to use in battle
There was one that He would seek out
Down to the land He went for His charge
He could see His way to a path in woods
A familiar face in the distance He saw
Almost mistaking His charge for a stag

Carnonos was not pleased to see Taranis
And saw that which unfolded His fault
That He failed in His duty to the world
Only to help Taranis if He left His torc
And gave Him one of His finest bulls
With anger Taranis agreed and awaited
Carnonos then led Taranis to Dumnos
Reminding Him that He did not rule there
For this was indeed the realm of Sucellos

After Taranis arrived He was approached
For not long ago had His son been here
And He who approached had seen Him
It was Ogmios and He spoke at length
Telling much of the good son of Taranis
That the boy learned of songs and dance
And did both very well that it impressed
But Taranis needed much to see Sucellos
Ogmios agreed to help Him but for a price

When Maponos was one day old enough
He would become apprentice to Ogmios
That He’d learn to wander, hunt, and sing
He would also learn of His many magics
Taranis agreed to this but did remind Him
That Maponos was to first be fostered
So Belenos would have the final word
It was good enough for Ogmios right now
He had agreed to lead Taranis to Sucellos

On they went, passing by the barren fields
Peopled by those who had left the world
In a place that was supposed to be green
With no comfort to the footsore Taranis
Who hardly stood out among the people
Though still they knew Him and gave gifts
As He had done well for them in the past
Feeling little better but continuing on
In that procession of poems and songs

It reminded Taranis the time was Cantlos
But in this place time mattered very little
Wondering if the world still sang of Him
They arrived at the dunum of Sucellos
Where they were greeted by those within
But at the court of Sucellos all was quiet
And Sucellos had not greeted with joy
For His beloved Nantosueltâ was missing
He only gave the minimum hospitality

Sucellos spoke to Taranis of His plight
That Nantosueltâ was also imprisoned
Which was why the fields were so barren
For it was She who gave life unto them
The one who made this place so lively
But no matter where Sucellos would look
Nantosueltâ was nowhere to be found
Taranis offered His aid for a small price
That Sucellos would make Him a weapon

With His apprentice Gobannos He worked
For three days they worked at their table
With iron upon sacred oak they tended
Taranis would rest from His long journey
But He knew well that it was still not done
Nor did any know how much He could eat
A full bull and ram and boar were eaten
Three barrels full to brim with mead gone
Nor did bread wine and cheese fare better

The next morning His club was presented
And all at the court did marvel upon it
With that His court bade Taranis farewell
Sending Him off to free their dear Queen
Now He felt bold and mighty once more
Moving with haste and purpose again
Leaving Dumnos, and seizing His torc
Carnonos had renewed His sense of trust
And would not miss that heavy trinket

Andenamatos knew the return of Taranis
As Brigantiâ and Sulis had declared it
He saw a glowing mare awaiting Him
Upon Her He rode and blinding the speed
He came to the frozen rivers and valleys
And He struck with His club to free them
Nantosueltâ was among those within
She thanked Him and made Her way back
Carnonos did guide Her back to Dumnos

Taranis knew that His debt had been paid
And this club, Lucetios was His to keep
But His mind was set to finding His foe
Upon His beloved mount, He met Him
Andenamatos was as tall as Them both
He had balked at what he saw as a fool
But Taranis moved to strike in great fury
Andenamatos had finally met his match
They battled enraged and trading strikes

The foul being went to strike the mount
A mistake that he now paid for dearly
Taranis knew indeed who His mount was
And He would not allow a strike upon Her
He took His club and with all of His might
Struck a blow that made the world shake
It was seen as a brilliant flash of light
Andenamatos this time met his better
His body now smashed into many pieces

It was now that the days went on longer
That the nights seemed kept long at bay
Fires were blazing so bright in His glory
The people sang and danced and feasted
His great battle would be know to all
And all would celebrate His great victory
That old fiend it is said, slithered away
With that last piece of himself he still had
And Taranis hurled Him into the depths

None knew if the they’d see the foe again
At that moment few gave it any thought
The people were proud of their champion
Giving many gifts and thanks to Taranis
And some swear they saw His mount
Turn into the fairest being they had seen
Not fully sure if they had seen Eponâ
Taranis and She returned to Their home
Upon that Uxellotegos high once more

Sernis Bituion (Cosmology)

Within a developed worldview, there is often a presentation of cosmological concepts. Not to mention an enumeration of worlds. Though the number varies in various Indo-European cultures, three is a very common number. John Shaw, in ‘On Indo-European Cosmic Structure’ covers this very well. (The link shared is to, free to sign up, and many articles are free as well.) Given that many other cultures had a three world cosmological structure at their core, it is not a stretch to assume this to be the case with the Gaulish peoples.

Those three worlds are Albios, Bitus, and Dubnos. A bit of explanation is required.

Dubnos is the Underworld, the Deep, and can relate not only to Mori (Gaulish for “sea”) but that which is under Bitus (the world in which we live). Under lakes, streams, caves, you name it. That which is under the Earth, home to Andernadoi (chthonic) beings. This includes not only Dêuoi of Dubnos, but at least some Rogentiâ (Ancestors), and other spirits. Some benevolent (bestowing riches and fertility of the land), others malevolent. It is here that is the womb of Litauiâ (the Earth), as we come from it, and our bodies, at the very least, return to it.

Dubnos is associated with things Giamos — that is, darkness, chaotic, chthonic, primal, and of winter.

Bitus is our own world, which other than being the home of humanity, is home to a myriad of other beings. This is also the domain of the Litauiatîs (land spirits), which are Dêuoi and Spirits of the Earth. This includes deities tied to locations such as lakes, rivers, mountains, trees, forests, and at this point, if not before, cities. Bitus is acted upon both of the other worlds. Thus we get both order and chaos, to live and die, the turnings of the seasons, and influences from both of the other worlds. We are subject to the full experience of these cycles.

Albios is the upper world. It is home to Ueranadoi (celestial) beings. The Dêuoi and Spirits of Nemos (the Sky), live here. Generally, these are the beings that provide order, protection, and that which is needed for civilization. To simply classify them as benevolent or malevolent does them a bit of disservice, as it is their job to preserve order. However, through reciprocal exchange with Them, as with the Dêuoi of the other two worlds, They too, may return such gifts with Their benevolence.

Albios is associated with things Samos — that is, light, order, celestial, civilized, and of summer.

One can also posit something that links the Three Worlds. That would be Drus (the World Tree). Drus is, in this case, the axis mundi, or pillar of worlds. In this case, comparisons can be made to Yggdrasil in Norse mythology, or Mount Olympus in Greek mythology. The roots of Drus lie within Dubnos, the trunk in Bitus, with a canopy that stretches to Albios.

Continue reading “Sernis Bituion (Cosmology)”