Sonnocingos Nouios (New Year)

As we follow the Coligny Calendar in Bessus Nouiogalation to determine our holidays, having a calendar at all means the year must start at some point. As the start of a new year is a cause for celebration nearly universally, we are no different in that regard. So the next questions are: When? And how to observe it? To whom and why?

When: Referring to the app linked above, the new year normally starts on 1 Samonios. However, whenever the intercalary month of Quimonios appears, it is 1 Quimonios that we celebrate it. This occurs once every five years, three times in a row. On the fourth cycle, there’s no Quimonios. After that, the cycles start again. At the time of writing this article –17 May, 2020 –, the year starts on 1 Samonios. Which will be 29 May, 2020. Festivities start the evening before that.

How: New Year festivities in this case involve feasting and partying as New Year observances often do. To bring in good luck for the new year, we have a few suggested offerings: mead, honey, coins. Any or all will do.

Mead and the honey that make it carry three important properties. There is the sweetness of it, which we can associate with goodness. There is its incredibly long shelf life, which signifies longevity, the hope for many years to come. And its golden colour, signifying prosperity.

For these things, an offering of coin can do the same thing. And hey, metal doesn’t decompose easily so a longevity association could be concluded from that as well.

Other potential offerings could include antlers, bones or acorns. Which speak to the nature of regeneration.

To whom and why: The first deity that comes to mind here is Carnonos. For whom, Ceisiwr Serith in ‘Cernunnos: Looking Every Which Way‘ makes a strong case of His associations with bi-directionality and prosperity. Carnonos simply being a different spelling.

Also, there’s a thought here that He stands guard between worlds. Protecting our own from creatures of Dubnos, the Underworld. One which has come from observing Him on the Gundestrup Cauldron.

And so, if you are reading this at the right time: Nouiobledanîn dagin tê! (A good New Year to you!)


A big thanks to Canabirix Sapouaððion for mentioning the idea of tying the New Year observances to Carnonos.

Uediâs (Invocations)

The main language used is Nouiogalaticos, a constructed revival based Gaulish dialect. And they will be translated to English, or if one uses a translator, whatever language they like. Though one doesn’t have to speak Nouiogalaticos to perform rituals, it’s nice to add a few words of it to give the rites a more Gaulish feel. Again, it’s not a “must” but it’s fair to assume one probably wants to use at least some.

The Nouiogalaticos will be shown first, and the English will be in parentheses (). So, if you need to translate into something other than English, only translate what is in parentheses ().

Also these letters “Д and “ð” make a “ts” sound.

One who has been in Gaulish custom for some time will notice a few of the same words (in the Eponâ and Taranis ones), and some of the structure (the three lines of praise) of the invocations are like those of Segomâros Widugeni. Which can be seen on his site and in his book, ‘Ancient Fire’. His invocations are a big influence on our own.

The following are invocations you can use in simple rituals to call on Dêuoi and give offerings to them. Thus participating in Sumatreiâ (good relationship) with them. Now there are over 300 Gaulish deities, and this isn’t going to be an exhaustive list. However, we can provide some here.

What we will do here is break the invocations into two halves. In the first half of the invocation one of course invoke the recipient of the ritual, they then describe the recipient with a few epithets. As well as a statement about them and what they may do in lore. We then give them offering and thanks.

The second half is what we might request of them, and the closing of the ritual. As we may ask different things of them, we have prepared several possible second halves. This allows you to know what you are asking for if you choose to do so in Gaulish. In any other language, we trust you can find the words.

Without further ado… Cintusimîs Uediânon (First Halves of the Invocations)



Uediâ Abnobî
(Invocation for Abnobâ)


Uediomos/Uediumii Abnobân
(We/I invoke Abnobâ)

Donâ allation
(Lady of the wilds)

Riganâ selgiâs
(Queen of the hunt)

Arpos noxtos
(Bow and arrow of the night)


Conateregiâ Argiiâs, gninomos gussus adiantî
(With the rising of the moon, we learn the value of effort)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Aisous
(Invocation for Aisus)


Uediomos/Uediumî Aisun
(We/I invoke Aisus)

Nemetorix
(King of the Nemeton)

Tigernos aidous
(Lord of the Fire)

Delgaunos Drous
(Keeper of Drus)

Das uiððus contoutî, caddocerdâs iton
(You give wisdom to the people, your sacred arts)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addauts] [Offering]

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Uediâ Alaunî
(Invocation for Alaunâ)


Uediomos/Uediumî Alaunan
(We/I invoke Alaunâ)

Cintus in leucê
(First in the light)

Dêuâ Ratî
(Dêuâ of generosity)

Bertiâ ituos
(Bearer of food)

Donâ areuari, rodâi nouiorasson conateregî sonnî
(Lady before the dawn, you give new hope with the rising sun)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Artionê
(Invocation for Artiû
)


Uediomos/Uediumî Artionen
(We/I invoke Artiû)

Riganâ ueltîs
(Queen of the wild)

Matîr nerticos
(Mighty mother)

Boudi uasanti
(Triumph of the spring)

Matîr arti, auetâ londâ, uedestûnis diuobin uellûs
(Mother of bears, wild protectress, you guide us to better days)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Auetî
(Invocation for Auetâ)


Uediomos/Uediumî Auetân
(We/I invoke Auetâ)

Uiððudonâ caddâ
(Holy Wise Woman)

Caradataunâ
(She who gives care)

Beraunâ agranion
(Bearer of the fruits)

Sistai areabonî, matîr andecarâ aiui, boudilanâ condatouibi
(You stand by the river, ever gentle mother, generous with gifts)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Belinû
(Invocation for Belinos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Belinon
(We/I invoke Belinos)

Bertos leuci
(Bearer of light)

Cingetos nemê
(Warrior in the sky)

Deuorbutos sergionon
(Vanquisher of diseases)

Dêuos berxtos, latis eporedios, esi londos urittoclamoi ollâ
(Shining Dêuos, horse riding hero, you are fierce against all illnesses)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Brigindonâ
(Invocation for Brigindû
)


Uediomos/Uediumî Brigindunen
(We/I invoke Brigindû)

Morênâ catoues
(Maiden of war)

Uernâ dunassiâs
(Guardian of the fortress)

Riganâ boudês
(Queen of victory)

Tenos uer bannî, gaisos etic cladios danacâ, boudi in lamî
(Fire upon the peak, spear and sword gifted, victory in hand)


Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Camulû
(Invocation for Camulos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Camulon
(We/I invoke Camulos)

Rix catuos
(King of battle)

Cladios boudicos
(Victorious sword)

Cingetos bouarios
(Noble warrior)

Baros molti, steros etic sontios, uices dagû olli
(Fury of the ram, steadfast and true, you fight for the good of all)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Carnonû
(Invocation for Carnonos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Carnonon
(We/I invoke Carnonos)

Uernos mantali
(Warden of the roads)

Entar bitoues
(Between worlds)

Anextlios Ecuon
(He Who Protects the Herds)

Antû Dubni sistâi, anegestû uritto namantobi etic uedes anatin
(At the border of Dubnos you stand, you protect against enemies and guide souls)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Catuboduî
(Invocation for Catuboduâ)


Uediomos/Uediumî Catuboduan
(We/I invoke Catuboduâ)

Messuaunâ galliâs
(Measurer of valor)

Barnaunâ argonon
(Judge of the worthy)

Riganâ Cingeti
(Queen of warriors)

Ueretrû iton, areuedestû argos comarion uellin
(Upon your wings, you carry the worthy to a better place)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Ðironî
(Invocation for Sironâ)


Uediomos/Uediumî Ðironan
(We/I invoke Sironâ)

Cintuðirâ nemê
(First star in the sky)

Matîr uoberi
(Mother of the springs)

Liagis lobri
(Healer of the sick)

Cintus extemellû, delgestû tudauon diion uellon
(First from the darkness, you hold the promise of better days)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering] 

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Uediâ Entarabou
(Invocation for Entarabus)


Uediomos/Uediiumi Entarabun
(We/I invoke Entarabus)

Uernos nantunon
(Guardian of the valleys)

Delgaunos Condation
(Keeper of the confluence)

Mapos iriiaciton
(Son of the fertile plains)

Ondê caddoialon, delges ueiâ raton
(In that sacred meeting place, you hold the power of blessings)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratun te
(We give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Eponî
(Invocation
for Eponâ)


Uediomos/Uediumî Eponan
(We/I invoke Eponâ)

Riganâ uercariâs
(Queen of the fertile land)

Deuâ ulatês
(Dêuâ of the sovereign land)

Riganâ messous
(Queen of the Harvest)

Eporediâ entar bitoues, rodâi boudin ollon
(Rider between worlds, you give bounty to all)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn tê
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Gobanû
(Invocation for Gobanos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Gobanon
(We/I invoke Gobannos)

Alaunos bituos
(Wanderer of the world)

Ordos prii
(Hammer of creating)

Tigernos teni
(Master of the fire)

Nertolamâs etic ordomâros, rodâi crittâ galletiûs nouiûs
(Mighty hands and great hammer, you give shape to new possibilities)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Grannû
(Invocation for Grannos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Grannon
(We/I invoke Grannos)

Delgaunos onobîias
(Holder of the water of life)

Tenos in dubrê
(Fire in the water)

Caniuolcos nerticos
(Mighty valiant hero)

Amarcolitanus, Liagimâros etic delgaunos runâs elus
(He with the far piercing sight, great healer and keeper of secrets)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Lugou
(Invocation for Lugus)


Uediomos/Uediumî Lugun
(We/I invoke Lugus)

Tigernos cerdânon
(Master of the arts)

Rix corii
(King of the warband)

Latis caili
(Hero of destiny)

Gaisos in lamî, uissus in britû, creddâ olli in te
(Spear in hand, knowledge in mind, faith of all in you)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Maponû
(Invocation to Maponos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Maponon
(We/I invoke Maponos)

Bardos aneuetos
(Inspired Bardos)

Mapað leuci
(Child of Light)

Delgaunos brixtânon
(Keeper of Magics)

Leucomâros etic nertoiouantus, ueiâ etic biuos ollaiui
(Great light and a strong youth, energy and life eternal)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Matrêbo
(Invocation for the Mothers)


Uediomos/Uediumî Materês
(We/I invoke the Materês)

Biuotus rodamaunâs
(Life givers)

Noibos maiamos
(Most holy)

Uissuaunâs tonceton
(Knowers of fates)

In geni, biuotû, etic maruê, uednis etic messus ollon
(In birth, life, and death, guiding and measuring us all)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn suos
(We/I give offering and thanks to you all)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Nantosueltî
(Invocation for Nantosueltâ)

Uediomos/Uediumî Nantosueltian
(We/I invoke Nantosueltâ)

Matîr marâ
(Great mother)

Delgaunâ uenios
(Keeper of pleasures)

Riganâ lanobitous
(Queen of the world of plenty)

Magloi buiont ûros corinon iton, rodarcon suanciton
(The fields become green with your touch, a welcome sight)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Nemetonî
(Invocation for Nemetonâ)

Uediomos/Uediumî Nemetonan
(We/I invoke Nemetonâ)

Donâ anton
(Lady of the Borders)

Uernâ caddî
(Guardian of the Sacred)

Delgaunâ Marâ
(The Great Keeper)

Rodâi caddiâ uentân, etic aneges urittoduscaxslâ
(You give sacredness to the offering space, and you protect against bad spirits)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratun te
(We give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus – Offering] 

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Uediâ Ogmiû
(Invocation for Ogmios)

Uediomos/Uediumî Ogmion
(We/I invoke Ogmios)

Cintuatîr Galation
(First father of the Galatîs)

Mârolabâtis
(Great speaker)

Belolatis
(Mighty hero)

Excenu bebanastû, uxelliâ Galation, rodîssestûnis anuan anson
(From far you came, pride of the Galatîs, you gave us our name)

Rodîmos/Rodîumî adbertâ etic bratûn tê
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Rosmertî
(Invocation for Rosmertâ)

Uediomos/Uediumî Rosmertan
(We/I invoke Rosmertâ)

Riganâ corii
(Queen of the warband)

Rataunâ meniâs
(Bestower of wealth)

Matîr uolugon
(Sustaining mother)

Marauetâ, raies brigon etic suraton colargotuð
(Great protectress, you bestow power and good fortune with generosity)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Rudiobou
(Invocation for Rudiobus)


Uediomos/Uediumî Rudiobun
(We/I invoke Rudiobus)

Cingetomâros
(Great warrior)

Soldurios couîros
(Loyal defender)

Epoð boudicos
(Victorious knight)

Dercâ exuerarduiâs, carantos exobnos toutiâs
(The eyes from upon the hill, fearless friend of the people)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Sucellû
(Invocation for Sucellos)


Uediomos/Uediumî Sucellon
(We/I invoke Sucellos)

Atîr Raton
(Generous father)

Medos candosocci
(Caretaker of the vines/shoots)

Uernos bitoues
(Watcher of realms)

Deluâunos textiâs magliâs, randestû textâs iton cotoutin
(Shaper of the gifts of the land, you share your gifts with the people)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Suleuiâbo
(Invocation for the Suleuiâs)


Uediomos/Uediumî Suleuiâs
(We/I invoke the Suleuiâs)

Uernâs uissoues
(Wise guardians)

Delgaunâs rextion
(Keepers of right)

Aminâs uîrisamâs
(Truest friends)

Esue leucos îani uedetesuîs ollon
(You all are the light of virtue, you guide us all)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn suos
(We/I give offering and thanks to you all)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Taranê
(Invocation for Taranis
)

Uediomos/Uediumî Taranin
(We/I invoke Taranis)

Nemorix
(Lord of the Sky)

Dêuos Rotî
(Dêuos of the Wheel)

Delgaunos Uîridi
(Keeper of Truth)

Delgestû loucetion etic anegestû ollon
(You hold the lightning and you protect all)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(We/I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

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Uediâ Uesunnî
(Invocation for Uesunnâ)

Uediomos/Uediumî Uesunna
(We invoke Uesunnâ)

Bertaunâ Dagocobî
(Bringer of good luck)

Donâ Ratî
(Lady of grace)

Suanextlaunâ
(Good protectress)

Rodâs sutonceton etic beres catubrixtâs
(You grant good fate and bear the battle magics)

Rodâmos/Rodâmî addatus etic bratun te
(We give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering] 

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Allosimi Uediânon (Second half of the invocations)

We have provided invocations for some deities. Within, we covered most of a simple invocation. If you have a request during such a rite, this is the time to include it. For those doing rituals in a language other than Gaulish, it’s okay to ask in your own words. Though you should develop a formula.

We will include some in Gaulish, and will translate the formula used in the Gaulish invocations. We will give words for things one may request, and for whom.

Arcimâs (Requests)

Arcîmos/Arcîumî _________

(We/I ask for _________)

All of these requests are in dative case, meaning an indirect object. In this case, the dative will imply asking for something.

slanû – health

anextlû – protection

calonnî – resolve

gallî – courage, confidence

uiridû – justice

ratû – grace, blessing

ratobo – blessings

sedû – peace

agnê – guidance

nertû – strength

boudê – victory

ianobitoû – prosperity

An example:

Arcîmos/Arcîumî slanû

(We/I ask for health)

Now for whom you may ask for blessings. In Gaulish, we will use the accusative case. That means referring to the direct object of a sentence. So, who we are asking the blessing or request to be directed to. If it is for yourself, then the line above is good enough. But what about for someone else?

Some examples of people or groups to ask for in Gaulish are as follows:

uenian – family

carantâs – friends

contreban –  city, town, village, community

mapaten anson/imon – child (of ours/mine)

mapatâs anson/imon – children (of ours/mine)

regenion anson/imon – parent (of ours/mine)

regeniâ anson/imon – parents (of ours/mine)

Galatîs – fellow Galatîs

Nouiogalatîs – fellow Nouiogalatîs

ollon – all people

tluxtiûs – the poor, needy

lobrûs – the sick

scasstâ – the hurt, injured

tegesicâ – the workers

bitun – the world

A final example for the full sentence:

Arcîmos/Arcîumî sedû bitun

(We/I ask for peace to the world)

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Clauiiâ (Closing)

When there is only one recipient, these are the lines to use in Gaulish:

Slanon te

(Cheer to you)

Bratûn te

(Thanks to you)

Molâmos te/Molâmî te

(We/I praise you)

When there are multiple recipients only the last line changes. Instead of tû, you use suos.

The final line altogether to close is:

Iâmos/Iâiumî in sedê

(We/I go in peace)

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Cintudricâ Uediâs (Example of an invocation)

This is what a full invocation may look like:

Uediumî Eponan
(I invoke Eponâ)

Riganâ uercariâs
(Queen of the fertile land)

Deuâ ulatês
(Goddess of the sovereign land)

Riganâ messous
(Queen of the Harvest)

Eporediâ entar bitoues, rodâi boudin ollon
(Rider between worlds, you give bounty to all)

Rodâmî addatus etic bratûn te
(I give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus] [Offering]

Arcîumî ratobo Galatîs
(I ask for blessings to the Galatîs)

Slanon te
(Cheer to you)

Bratûn te
(Thanks to you)

Molâmî Eponan
(I praise you Eponâ)

Iâiumî in tancê
(I go in peace)


That was a sample ritual. And this is a way we have developed to do invocations. The complexity is certainly present if one does them in Gaulish, but over time, it gets easier as with any other language.

Remember, that you don’t have to do the entire invocation in Gaulish if you don’t feel comfortable. And you can always do them with some Gaulish, and some of your usual language. It takes a little effort to do invocations in rituals right. However, we know that you can do it!

Together, we can bring back worship of our Dêuoi and can build a new Galatibessus (Gaulish Custom). And we invite you all to join us.

Suauelos tê! (Good winds to you!)

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Îanoi (Virtues)

Gaulish Polytheism

Taranis brings us the Îanoi (Virtues). If one is the center of the wheel, and the rim is that which is literally around us (family, community, the world, etc.), the virtues are the spokes. With all spokes present, the wheel can roll forward. The more spokes present, the smoother the ride.
Too few, and the wheel breaks apart.
Everything is connected in the great cycle of the cosmic order of things, each leading and affecting the other.

Ambactos Rotî (ambassador of the wheel) are those of us that follow the teachings of the wheel of Îanoi. We dedicate our selves to the ever-spinning motion.

(For a reading of this article in English by Caromâros Caitogabros, please click here.)

Îanoi, which in a more literal sense means from Îanos “right, just, correct,” essentially, in this case, “things that are right or correct.” For the purposes of the Bessus Nouiogalation (that is, “Custom of the New Galatîs,” plural form of “Galatis”), it also encompasses the term “virtues.” The understanding of virtues is essential so that we have a guide to live our lives in a way that helps us be better people. In turn, this helps us be better members of our communities.

So why codify something like virtues? The answer to which is simple, they give us something to refer to when we lose our way. The Dêuoi (worshipped beings) fulfill their actions perfectly. But they are Dêuoi. We are Donioi (humans). We aren’t perfect in our actions. No one is, and that’s okay. Every now and again, it doesn’t hurt to remember Nouiogalatis virtues, inspired by those of the ancient Gauls. As they will help us re-center ourselves and keep us in accordance with what is right.

The way we will break this down is by looking at what was thought to be the three laws the Druides (singular: Druið, pronounced “Dru-its”) taught. As you may guess, it translates to Druid. Though with the last law, we’ve been able to apply a more general interpretation to it. As our understanding of that one has changed. You’ll understand when you see it. We will list one law at a time, and there will be four virtues assigned to each to help us live up to each law.

They were originally recorded by Diogenes Laertius’s “Vitæ,” introductory verse 5:

The basic law of the Druids given to us by Diogenes Laertius, “Vitæ,” intro., 5

I. The gods must be worshipped.

II. No evil done.

III. Exercise valour.

Now, we must be aware with the third law that there are multiple interpretations of it. And this is but one translation proffered. Another mentioned “manly behavior”, but even to the Gauls, there’s no reason to assume they only attributed these qualities to men. We must remember that these laws were recorded from someone who wasn’t a Gaul. After all, Onomaris was certainly courageous in leading her people to the east. We also must remember that valor doesn’t just apply to warriors. We can all think of people who have done courageous things far outside the field of combat that uphold notions of valor.

As such, in Bessus Nouiogalation — an independent and contemporary Gaulish inspired custom — we strive to uphold these laws among our community. Developed from our interactions within Galatibessus of which we are a part, and dialogue with members of our specific bessus (custom). They are called the Trirextoues Bessous. The Three Laws of the Custom. They are as follows:

I.  Dugie Dêuoi – “Honour the Dêuoi”

II. Urege ne drucos – “Do no evil”

III. Biue con drutaî – “Live with valour”

With these laws established, there are twelve virtues, and four each helps us align ourselves with these laws. So we will visit each law and discuss relevant virtues that can guide us. It should go without saying that there are more than twelve good qualities that can be exercised as virtues. However, many will relate to the ones discussed.

Let us start with the first law:

Dugie Dêuoi – Honour the Dêuoi

Applicable virtues:

  1. Dêuocariâ (piety). Piety is important because by seeking and acting on honoring the Dêuoi, we bring ourselves closer to them. In doing so, it helps us learn all other right actions. Not every pious person is otherwise virtuous. However, they’re arguably not pious. As part of piety is not simply regular worship, but learning the virtues each of the Dêuoi has to teach.

“And a peculiar and striking practice is found among the upper Celts, in connection with the sacred precincts of the gods; as for in the temples and precincts made consecrate in their land, a great amount of gold has been deposited as a dedication to the gods, and not a native of the country ever touches it because of religious scruple, although the Celts are an exceedingly covetous people.” (Diodorus Siculus, Library of History V.27)

“All the Gauls are extremely devoted to superstitious rituals.” (Caesar, The Gallic Wars VI.16)

  1. Luxtiâ (duty). The Dêuoi fulfill their duties perfectly. Of course, we do not always fulfill our duties perfectly. It’s part of being human. Though as donioi (humans), we don’t let imperfection stop us from acting. And so it’s important to remind ourselves to act on the duties we agree to — so long as it was made between two groups or people in equal positions of power. Just as the Dêuoi would.
  1. Uissus (wisdom/knowledge). To be wise is to have knowledge of the teachings of the Dêuoi. As well as how to put them into action. The Druids of the past were exalted for their wisdom, but you don’t have to be one to learn the lessons of the Dêuoi and the world. Nor to act upon them. As wisdom is not passive, but active.
  1. Îanolabâ (right speech). Something particularly relevant to the Gauls. As Ogmios, what the Romans said their northern neighbours called Hercules. However, (and you can read the account here) Ogmios was shown as older, as opposed to the younger Hercules. The reason why is that the Gauls in particular valued eloquence, as speech can bind wills more effectively than strength.

“The Gauls are terrifying in aspect and their voices are deep and altogether harsh; when they meet together they converse with few words and in riddles, hinting darkly at things for the most part and using one word when they mean another; and they like to talk in superlatives, to the end that they may extol themselves and depreciate all other men. They are also boasters and threateners and are fond of pompous language, and yet they have sharp wits and are not without cleverness at learning.” (Diodorus Siculus, Library of History V.31)

Let us now look at the second law:

Urege ne drucos – Do no evil

Applicable virtues:

  1. Doniocariâ (compassion). Compassion is one of the most essential ways to ensure we do good instead of evil. How we respond to the suffering of others, and that we are aware of their pain is one of the most integral parts of the human condition. 
  1. Gosticâriâ (hospitality). This is a key one. Through being hospitable, we forge connections and bonds with others, strengthening our communities. Both in person and online, as guest and host relations still apply. An example of Gaulish hospitality can be shown in ‘Library of History‘, from Diodorus Siculus (5.28):

“They invite strangers to their feasts, and do not inquire until after the meal who they are and of what things they stand in need.”

  1. Raton (generosity). Until recently, people weren’t celebrated for being greedy. As one who is miserly is denying resources to the community. Sharing and generosity remind us that we are all interconnected. Without the goods or services others offer, a society cannot function. By being greedy in our personal lives, we cannot make friends. Generosity goes beyond material wealth, and includes company, kind words, a listening ear. Many qualities we associate with good people even today.
  1. Uiridos (truth). This is a more complex concept than simply “not lying”. As sometimes, in rare cases, lying is a course of action that serves truth. An example would be lying to protect someone from violence and harm if the assailant was looking for them. To live in truth is to be truthful to one’s actions and be authentic. It is to act in a way that fosters honesty, justice, fairness, and virtue.

Onto the third law:

Biue con drutaî – Live with valour

Applicable virtues:

  1. Decos (honour). We’ll get the obvious out of the way first. Honour ties into many other virtues as it is based on how well you live up to all of the other virtues. Thus, reputation ties directly into this as well. Your honour is measured by your integrity and virtue.
  1. Uîroioniâ (justice). To be honourable is to also be just. To exercise fairness in our decisions and actions. It also requires the knowledge of making decisions in a just manner. As acting in a fair and just way is important, so is speaking out when justice is being violated. And that takes a little of the next virtue.
  1. Galâ (bravery). To be brave is another thing that isn’t always easily understood. It is not fearlessness. Bravery is doing something in spite of fear. And bravery is living up to the virtues even when it is inconvenient or when everyone around you disregards them. It’s also about having the fortitude to admit a mistake or flaw, as well as face consequences for one’s wrongdoings. 

“They reward brave warriors with the choicest portions of the meat, in the same manner as the poet introduces Ajax as honoured by the chiefs after he returned victorious from his single combat with Hector [in Illiad 7.321]: ‘To Ajax then were given of the backbone / Slices, full-length, unto his honour.’” (Diodorus Siculus, Library of History V.28)

An example of Gauls (also called Celts in the Classical world) is illustrated in Phillip Freeman’s ‘the Philosopher and the Druids‘ (Kindle edition) speaks of the account Alexander the Great’s general Ptolemy on the matter of Gaulish bravery when he asked them what they feared: 

“But the leader of the Celtic band soberly looked Alexander in the eye and said, “Nothing. We honor the friendship of a man like you more than anything in the world, but we are afraid of nothing at all. Except,” he added with a grin, “that the sky might fall down on our heads!”

  1.  Ûxelliâ (pride). In the “over culture” we’re often taught that this is not a virtue. However, pride is not synonymous with arrogance. Being proud of one’s deeds is virtuous and can inspire others to also be virtuous. Whereas arrogance is for the self and doesn’t benefit anyone else. Pride also is about fostering a sense of self worth, and in turn recognising the worth of others. When in line with the other virtues, pride can help foster a sense of community and commitment to the common good.

As all traditions have ethical and moral codes, so do we. We’re confident that these virtues are a reasonable approach to right actions based on what was taught to the people by the Druides. There are many other virtues that could be listed but almost all of them are related to those listed in some way. 

When thinking of what to do in a situation, try to remember the Îanoi!

A good practice is to, at the end of your day, take a look at what Îanoi you excelled at and what ones you had trouble with. Make a note of why look back a see what you could have done differently or why to excelled. Our Îanoi is not something talked about but acted on.

What is Galatibessus?

Galatibessus is an emerging custom that has its roots in communities engaged in — to varying degrees — the revival of cultures, customs, and religions of the peoples collectively known as Gauls (in contemporary English parlance). In reference to people living in Western Europe and Central in the Iron Age. They spoke the Gaulish language, and while local variants existed in abundance, also shared a similar material culture (La Tène period), worldview, and customs of worship.

The term Galatibessus consists of the words Galatis and bessus. Galatis is a word that was used to refer to those known now as Gauls. Whether it was a name given by them to the Ancient Greeks who first recorded the term or whether the Greeks developed the name themselves is unknown. Today, it is used as an identity by those who practice Galatibessus.

Bessus is decidedly Gaulish in origin. Meaning “mores, habit” (Delamarre, ‘Dictionnaire de la Langue Gauloise’, p. 74), this can reasonably be extended to “custom”. Thus Galatibessus means “Galatis Custom”. Custom in this case refers to the very exercise of being. It is in reference to culture, ethics, worldview, and worship. Galatibessus is all of these things in relation to those of us inspired by the Gauls of the past. This is why we refer to ourselves as Galatîs (this is the plural form of Galatis) — as doing Galatibessus makes us so.

There are many different ways to express and live Galatibessus, but emphasis on all of the aforementioned characteristics: culture, ethics, worship, all parts of worldview, factor into it. Certainly, some may be more interested in one of these things more than others, but it is understood that all of them are necessary for a whole and complete Galatibessus. As such the study of all of these things and the components that comprise them are critically important.

Who can practice Galatibessus?

Galatibessus is open to anyone who seeks to practice it. If one decides to fit the descriptions above, they are a Galatis or can be if they choose to do so. A Galatis is judged by urextoues (deeds, actions).

The culmination of worship, ethics, culture, and worldview inform the Galatis and help contribute to the ongoing process of building Galatibessus. All who feel called to Galatibessus are welcome to be a part of it regardless of skin color, nationality, sexual orientation, gender, sex, physicality, income, etc. A Galatis identity maybe someone’s main identity, or be in tandem with the other or many identities that one may have. As long as one is earnest and sincere in their desire and willing to put in the work of learning and living Galatibessus, they too can be a Galatis. If you are feeling so called, that could very well mean you.

What are some fundamentals of Galatîbessus?

A major component of Galatibessus is to live life in accordance with Assus (order, according to ritual, with connotations of sacred or universal law). What this means is to live in a way that is beneficial to the world, our communities, and ourselves.

Certain virtues help us to do this such as:

Decos (honour)

Raton (generosity, though this also means “grace” amongst many other things)

Oigetocâriâ (hospitality)

Luxtiâ (Truth)

Uariâ (Duty)

Trougocaradon (compassion, mercy)

There are more. These cover a few important ones. What it does not mean is following along with the “status quo” or being unquestioning. If the “status quo” is oppressive or unjust, it is not in line with Aððus. Therefore not in line with order. It is important to mention this as we often see people, and entire systems pervert morals to suit the powerful and not order. There is no order without Uîroioniâ (Justice).

An absolute fundamental would be learning of Gaulish history, customs, and culture. With a focus on learning what is right to bring forward and make applicable to our own time, and what is best left in the Iron Age. Though it’s important not to fall into presentist thinking. The Gauls were human, fallible, and made mistakes. Contemporary societies are no different. We still often grapple with problems today that they did. Often making the same mistakes, sometimes worse ones. In this case, it is important to remember that the Gauls of the past interacted with a very different set of material conditions than we do, and vice versa.

Just as there are contemporary ideas that would likely have improved things for them (technology notwithstanding), they, too, extolled virtues that would be beneficial for us today. Good judgment and a solid material analysis helps us identify which of those virtues are timeless (hospitality, honor, courage, right speech), and which are best left in the Iron Age (such as patriarchy and ableism). Conversely, their virtues can also reinforce that some contemporary ideas are dangerous, that many preconceived notions of Western thought ought to be challenged and fought (examples: white supremacism, LGBTQ+ phobias, and Western chauvinism).

Through careful application, we can aspire to a vibrant and positive set of customs that are helpful to us today, as opposed to reactionary or romanticist thinking. As tradition is not unmoving or unchanging. This can be seen in many cultures today that remember their cultural roots while also partaking in contemporary societies.

Some examples are things like the revival of material culture, using forms of Gaulish language, and working on newer projects such as myths and constructing practices for different aspects of life.

Bessus Nouiogalation Q&A

(For an audio reading, in English — read by Caromâros Caitogabros — click here.)

About Bessus Nouiogalation

Bessus Nouiogalation (Custom of the New Galatîs) is a Galatibessus tradition. Galatibessus is the Gaulish inspired revivals of custom, culture and religion, which are both intricately intertwined and inseparable. There are many faces of this, with many different intentions. The goal of the work here is to give those interested a foundational set of traditions with a focus on establishing Galatis identity.

Many people out there feel a lack of positive identity, one not tied to colonialism or racism. Finding Galatibessus has been a great help to us. We hope that by sharing our works that together, we can establish a positive identity that is also rooted in a cultural tradition that helps us to reconnect with our roots. Those who seriously wish to participate in Galatibessus, or BNG in particular, and practice are fellow Galatîs if they choose to identify as such. Regardless of any other identity, they may also have.

Just as blood did not make a Gaul in the past (notice how Gauls ceased to exist as such but do have genetic descendants worldwide), and genetics as we know of them now were unknown in the past, they have absolutely no bearing on who can be in Galatibessus. Much less who can worship the Dêuoi (Gods). Genetics do not determine culture, and cannot, shall not determine who is a Galatis. Millions, probably billions likely have at least one Gaulish ancestor anyway. Gaulish identity was determined by culture, religion, and language. So there is no moral or logical reason to exclude anyone by genes.

This is not to minimize the historical impact of the Gauls (mainly in France, also in Switzerland, Belgium, southwest Germany, and many other places in Western and Central Europe all the way to Turkey, in fact). We are interested in a modern form of Ancient Gaulish identity, not in co-opting the modern identities of people living where the Ancient Gauls once did. Some individual Galatis may, but it is not the focus of BNG, or Galatibessus.

Galatibessus does have parameters. It is Polytheist and Animist, meaning we worship many distinct, and individual Ancient Gaulish gods, and see all things as having spirit. We believe that the Dêuoi are real and interact with them through gifting and offering in ritual. As well as prayer, meditations, and other spiritual experiences. Some may also worship foreign deities, and that is okay. Other kinds of spirits, beings, and ancestors (Gaulish and not) are also worshipped or otherwise engaged with in various ways.

What is Bessus Nouiogalation?

Bessus Nouiogalation is a Galatibessus tradition. Galatibessus means “Galatis Custom”, which is focused on the historical language known as Gaulish, the material culture from what is known as the La Tène archeological period, from which the people that spoke this language emerged. Roughly 450 BCE – 50 BCE. As well as the worship of beings collectively referred to as Dêuoi. Dêuos is the singular term. The Dêuoi of course, are those named in that very same Gaulish language.

We seek to create a stable cultural and religious revival. A New Galatis tradition that remembers and learns from the past, but is not limited to it. So while the focus is on a specific period of time, elements and influences from other times, cultures, and places can also be found here to varying extents. The main focus is simply what is prioritised, but it is not exclusively such.

None of this is meaningful if it cannot apply to everyday life. Due to this, we focus much on our Îanoi (virtues). There is also much focus on culture. Historically, and amongst many peoples currently, culture touches all areas of life. Bessus Nouiogalation seeks to do this. This site is hopes to share the content to help this tradition along. In the hopes that it will inspire those interested to be a part of it.

We also hope it helps provide an alternative and resistance to white supremacist “Western” culture. Obviously, this cannot be done by simply practicing Bessus Nouiogalation. But hopefully we can help provide cultural and spiritual support for those involved to engage in the physical, political, ideological, activism to help fight white supremacism, and its fascist, racist, imperialist, and capitalist nature.

So… Is this like a club or organization?

It is an adbessus (tradition) and has a group of people, a toutâ that follow it together. One does not have to be a member of Bessus Nouiogalation to follow our adbessus, or use any of this site’s material.

What does Bessus Nouiogalation mean, anyway?

Bessus is a Gaulish word meaning “custom, practice”. This is a common word used on this site to describe various practices. Tegobessus “house custom” is an example, which are customs of the household. Noiuos means “new”, the final “s” is dropped when combining two words. Galation means “of the Galatîs”, “Galatîs” is plural for “Galatis”, which is Gaulish for “a Gaulish person”. So, Bessus Nouiogalation means “Custom of the New Galatîs”.

We use Galatis instead of Gaul as it is a Gaulish word, helping us differentiate chronologically later usages of the term “Gaul”. As that term was in use long after the language, material culture, and worship of the Dêuoi ceased to exist. We are trying to be a toutâ (people) in some way, and a people need a language. So we use a form of reconstructed Gaulish (Nouiogalaticos) to the best of our abilities when we can, or at least can get away with it. This is why you will see a lot of articles titled in this language, and why such terms are often used. So, it isn’t to show off.

You’re not “folkish” are you?

Bessus Nouiogalation is not only not folkish, we are anti-folkish. As well as antifascist. We oppose fascism, racism, misogyny, and any anti-LGBTQIA+ positions. We also oppose capitalism, classism, ableism, and all other types of bigotry. In time, we also hope to make the content on the site more accessible to folks who may have issues with traditional text reading.

Bessus Nouiogalation is about building a positive identity. An attempt to provide an identity that is not tied to imperialism, colonialism, or hate. Anyone who is called to Bessus Nouiogalation who does not support the above listed things we oppose, and feels a calling to be a Galatis, is welcome.

Surely there are some conditions?

Yes, there are. For example, the Dêuoi are not only real, but distinct individuals. Just as you and I are distinct people. We may have some things in common, but you are you, and I am me. We are not interchangeable. We are not different versions of the same person. So it is with the Dêuoi.

The Dêuoi are mysterious, and it is possible that learning of worshipped beings who have some things in common with ours can help us understand the Dêuoi. However, that does not make them the same as another. Things about Zeus or Thor might help us understand Taranis better, but He is still Taranis, Zeus is Zeus, and Thor is Thor.

Foreign worshipped beings are not simply different versions of ours. Nor are ours simply different versions of theirs. It is absolutely fine for a Galatis (Nouiogalatis or otherwise) to worship beings foreign to us as well. Or for someone in another custom or religion to worship the Dêuoi. There is also no reason to disrespect foreign worshipped beings, especially if we would ask others to respect ours.

There really isn’t much by the way of restrictions or taboos. Don’t disrespect the Dêuoi. Don’t do evil. Do the best you can to be a good person and to fight for what’s right. Try to live an honorable life. Hopefully, we can make the world a better place.

Is this the only legit way to be a Galatis?

Certainly not. There are many ways to be either of these things, and as it should be, we are all free to decide what that means to us. Bessus Nouiogalation exists to provide a structure, culture, and identity to those who want it. Not to force anyone to be a part of it.

The material on this site was developed by Bessus Nouiogalation, but is free to use. One can use, adopt, adapt in part, full, or not at all. We will know who is one of us by what they do. And if you’re not one of us, that’s okay. We hope there might be some things that you find useful here, but if not, that’s okay too.

How much, if at all, one chooses to participate is up to them. We’re not, and have never claimed to be the “one true way”, and we never will. Some folks choose to align with a tribal identity, focusing on only one group of Gauls historically, and that’s fine. Others choose a Galatis identity that is newer like this one. There’s room for all.

Why the political stuff?

If one doesn’t wish to be a part of something that opposes racism, fascism, capitalism, imperialism, and the other ills of the world, then feel free to stay in the over culture (or at least stay away from us). As it already promotes those things. You don’t have to be a full time activist to be here. However, understand that it is good and right to fight those things, and take part in that if you can. This is not a place for bourgeois escapism.

So all of the material is free to use?

Sure. Now, don’t take credit for it if you didn’t do it. But yes, it’s free. Also, a link back is appreciated if you can manage. Especially “pingbacks” as it allows links you use to be up to date, since sometimes information gets updated.

Can one join Bessus Nouioglation if they also are part of other groups or have other practices?

Yes. While Bessus Nouiogalation has a very specific set of foci which it fully intends to maintain, all a member has to do is practice it. If they practice anything else, or a part of other groups or organisations, that is not a problem. We do not seek, nor have we ever sought to regulate what people practice. Many of our own group’s membership are part of other customs, practices, religions, etc either in syncretic or multi-traditional fashion.

The only caveat is that regarding right wing groups. Anyone in a right wing group of any kind is barred from Bessus Nouiogalation. Including fascists, and those who collaborate with them. There are also groups that are particularly toxic out there, and have a poor reputation. As that is subjective and fluid, we simply try to see if a prospective member is of good character.

Are you Pagans?

Some of our membership would identify as Pagans without a doubt. However, Bessus Nouiogalation does not identify as a Pagan organisation. Nor is it involved with the “Polytheist movement” (though we are certainly what people would call polytheistic and animistic in belief). However, some members of Bessus Nouiogalation certainly are.

As such, an individual in Bessus Nouiogalation may identify with Paganism, or the Polytheist movement within it. Organisationally, however, we maintain our independence. So the answer to that question is personal as opposed to organisational. A member of Bessus Nouiogalation is a Nouiogalatis. Whatever else they may also be is up to them. (Obvious exception regarding again, allegiance to right wing groups or ideologies.)

Dêuoi (Worshipped Beings)

The Dêuoi are numerous. In Gaul, there were easily over 300, when counting the places in which the Gaulish language was spoken. That is just what we know, or assume. There are likely many we do not know, and many more Dêuoi than we yet know — inside and outside of what was Gaul. Therefore, it’s impossible to do any real treatise on Them, as that would take volumes. This is not meant to be treated as an academic treatise, but simply as the result of experience in Bessus Nouiogalation (Custom of the New Galatîs).

Even a treatise on the known Dêuoi of Gaulish toutâs (nations) would at least fill a book. That would be quite lengthy for a single article! The Dêuoi we will briefly discuss fill two criteria, either partially or entirely:

  • Historically widely worshipped by the Gauls, and named in Gaulish.
  • Widely worshipped by Galatîs today. (After all, we are speaking of a new Gaulish custom.)

An extensive treatise will not be necessary because usually when one comes to Galatîbessus (Gaulish Custom), it is because they have an interest in or experience with a Dêuos or Dêuâ (fem. form of Dêuos). Also, it should be known that the Dêuoi — Gaulish or otherwise, are not limited to things like “function”. Just as a person may be known for doing something, doesn’t mean that it’s all they know or are capable of doing, the same is the case for Dêuoi.

Bessus Nouiogalation doesn’t deal in reductionism. That is, the idea that many different names are those of the same Dêuos, unless they are very linguistically close. A matter of different spelling or dialect. Though it’s indeed possible that a Dêuos may have many names, unless provided with concrete evidence it will not be stated here that one name is a byname for another whether we personally believe that or not.

This does not mean comparative evidence cannot help illuminate and buttress the understanding of a Dêuos either. It can and often does. However, noting likenesses is not the same thing as saying two Dêuoi are literally the same. By respecting these distinctions, we can “play it safe”. If two names are in reference to the same being, no foul is committed. If they are not, proper respect has still been given.

Here is a brief list of Dêuoi in Bessus Nouiogalation, along with a little bit of background. Facts and conjecture included. Either from ourselves or what we have heard from our interactions with fellow Galatîs:


Abnobâ

Abnobâ’s name is thought to have to do with rivers, but the etymology is unclear. There are inscriptions of her being named with Roman Diana. This allows us to deduce that Abnobâ governs hunting, forests, and the night. These inscriptions were often found in the Black Forest region in what is now Germany.

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Aisus

Also spelled Esus. His name is thought to mean “sacred, fire”. He has been likened to both Mars and Mercury. He is most well known for the depiction of Him pruning a tree with what may be either an axe or a billhook. Near Him is Tarvos Trigaranos (Bull and Three Cranes). The cranes perhaps a death omen. Theories as to what this means varies, but our suspicion is that Aisus is maintaining a sacred grove. Remember that such groves were carefully curated places.

By maintaining the grove, sacrifice, as bulls were commonly a sacrificial animal, was possible. So whether or not He kills Tarvos Trigaranos is irrelevant. He at least makes the sacrifice possible. He is also invoked in an invocation relating to the curing of a troubled throat. Suggesting that He may also be involved in magic.

He shares his skills with humanity. What Aisus is possibly doing is teaching us the knowledge of sacrifice and how to perform it. Equally important is that He is teaching us how to maintain sacred spaces. As again, such spaces were carefully cultivated and their locations deliberate.

His invocation on a tablet requesting a cure suggests that the Gaulish idea of magic was not one that separated the practicioner from the Dêuoi. Instead reinforcing that we are connected with Them and our actions are best when in line with what They teach.

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Artiû

Her name comes from the word Artos, meaning “bear”. So immediately we can see that bears play an obvious role in Her cult and She is depicted with them. The form we have of Her name is Artio, which is in the dative case, yielding perhaps Artius or Artiû. We also have from Switzerland, Artioni, which is in dative, meaning in Gaulish Her name would be Artiû. Which is what we use.

With Her connection to bears we have to try to extrapolate what that means for how to perceive Her, as we have less information and no likenesses to foreign deities for which to compare Her. The first thing we could easily notice is that a mother bear is both strong and protective. So, it is fair to assume She is a protectress. Next, we can see a very close relation to the cycle of the seasons and wager that She has a role in that.

Moreover, a mother bear does not merely protect Her cubs, but teaches them. This could mean that a Dêuâ of bears could teach much about survival on the land. That like a mother bear to her cubs, Artiû gives wisdom to Her worshippers.

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Auetâ

Auetâ governs midwives, fertility and nursing. It can also be assumed that she governs freshwaters. There is also an association with dogs, which could, in piecing together with the rest, be a connotation of healing. As is noted by Miranda Green in Gods of the Celts. In the same book, there’s also the idea that she is also a protector of children. This seems in step with the other information we have.

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Belinos

There are a few contending interpretations for what his name means, but normally is thought to mean something like “Powerful”. He was likened by the Romans to Apollo. This can provide some insight into his nature. He is associated with sunlight (but not a Dêuos of the sun), lighit, horses (clay ones were offered to him), and war. It was once said that he was seen defending the city of Aquileia from a seige.

He is also associated with hot springs, tying him into healing. Altogether, He sounds like a very ancient Dêuos. And it’s possible that he could have been mythologically associated with pulling the sun across the sky in a horse drawn chariot, based on his traits and the clay horse offerings. His worship was widespread, apparently starting out in Eastern Gaul to Noricum, and spreading west and north, to Britain.

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Brigindû

Her name is thought to mean “the High One”, high as in elevated like a hilltop or a mountain. This is where forts were often constructed, which can reasonably lead to a conclusion that she is a warrior Dêuâ. Being depicted with spears and in a helm certainly strengthens the idea. Being likened to Minerva, who is likened to Athena, the patron deity of Athens, who is associated with war and strategy among other things paints a deeper picture. She was also likened to Victoria.

In Her, we see a protective Dêuâ of warfare. In Britain, she was the tutelary Dêuâ of the Brigantes tribe. In Gaul, she was depicted with a spear, a “globe of victory”, as well as with a gorgon’s head on her chest. So we can see deep mythological elements that makes one easily associate her with the arts of war.

We have no direct gnosis to offer of Brigindû in reference to who she is. As a firm and fierce protectress is how we see her as well. We don’t see a connection to Irish Brighid (save for linguistically), but we also have no desire to come across as invalidating the views of those who comparatively illuminate Brigindû through her. After all, deities cannot be put into neat little boxes. It is simply that we do not make the connection.

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Camulos

His name is thought to mean something like “champion”. He is thought to be a warrior and inscriptions and placenames are related to him are found in Britain (Camulodunum), Belgium, Germany, and one in Romania. He was named along Roman Mars. As such, he is thought to be a warrior Dêuos. Something that has caught on regarding Camulos is that according to Mackillop (and Segomâros WIdugeni) he is ram horned.

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Carnonos

Carnonos is suspected to be His Gaulish name, Cernunnos being a later form used in the Gallo-Roman era. Either way, most will know who you are talking about. The etymology isn’t certain, but is commonly thought to mean “Horned One”.

He is often depicted with a ram horned serpent, and sometimes with animals like bulls, of course deer, and occasionally a rat. He is also depicted with a torc or torcs, the famous neck rings associated with the Gauls among other peoples. Also being depicted on the Pillar of the Boatmen, this leads to a linking of Him to commerce and trade. In Celtiberia, depictions of Him as being like Janus links Him to being a Dêuos of Bidirectionality.

As we can expect, this paints a very interesting picture of a Dêuos who was linked to many things, and as Dêuoi are, very complex. We see chthonic and liminal aspects. Riches of Dubnos (the Underworld), but also of a kind of intermediary, travel and perhaps a kind of psychopomp, one who guides souls of the dead.

A gnosis we can offer is that of Artogenos Uindoguððus (ð is a “ts” sound in these parts). He suspects that Carnonos is a river father. Rivers are associated with trade, wealth, and travel. They are also associated with depths, Dubnos, the chthonic, infernal. Water often is. So we can see liminal and chthonic properties at work. Bulls and deer being on either side of Him reflect a boundary of the “civilized” and the “wilds”. An important distinction at a time where being in the settlement was the safest place to be and when the wilds really were that. They still are in some places, but not to the extent they were in the Iron Age.

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Catuboduâ

Her name means “Battle Crow”, also Cathuboduâ. As there isn’t thought to be a “th” sound in Gaulish, the “h” is probably silent and so we generally don’t use it. Her name says a lot about that with which She is involved. War. There is a belief that crows were thought to choose who was to be slain on the field of battle. Presumably because they consume those who die.

However, as there are other cultures with beliefs that those who die were carried up to a to the afterlife by crows or ravens. It is in some ways, as those who fall in battle are celebrated in many cultures, not a completely bad thing to have been chosen. Since if one assumes they will die and provided they don’t flee are probably going to fight ferociously.

So, She is indeed not only a Dêuâ accustomed to death, She is involved in the process. Carrying the fallen on Her wings to a good afterlife.

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Ðironâ

Her name has to do with the word Ðirâ, (Ð = ts) meaning “star”. She is depicted with eggs, snakes, and associated with healing springs. She is also depicted wearing a star shaped diadem, and wearing a long gown. The snake and eggs bring to mind a connection to the Greek deity Hygeia.

Here we have a Dêuâ of healing, of stars, of springs and wells. She is also depicted once holding grains and fruits. Temples to Her were also built around springs and wells. So, we have her associated with snakes, eggs, wells, springs, stars, and fertility.

Our gnosis is that the star connection coupled with snakes, eggs, and wells have to do with the liminal period of spring. Wells fill, and springs are more active this time of year. Snakes emerge from their burrows, and eggs are hatching at this time. As this is the time of that emergence, we suspect if a star were related to her, it wouldn’t actually be a star, but the planet Venus. Of course, other planets look like stars to the naked eye in the sky.

Though not directly in the shape of a star, Venus does move through five points in the sky, and is visible mainly in the evening and morning, a liminal time of day, and spring is a liminal time of year. We also realize that’s a fairly generous gnosis, so take from it what you will.

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Entarabus

His name means “between rivers”. He’s depicted with a wolf skin over his shoulder, and due to his name we can assume he’s involved with valleys and perhaps boundaries. In BNG, he’s thought to be the son of Sucellos and Nantosueltâ. One temple dedicated to him was built over a spring, converted from what had temporarily became a temple to Mithras, according to Helmut Birkhan in ‘Kelten. Versuch einer Gesamtdarstellung ihrer Kultur’.

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Eponâ

Her name is certainly related to the Gaulish word for horse, which is Epos. So, it’s clear that She is a Dêuâ of horses. However, She is much more complicated than that. Horses hold connotations of sovereignty, and Otherworldly travel. Perhaps because of their ability to traverse the land. However, horses are not the only things depicted with Her.

Grains, and later cornucopiae, are also featured with Her. This suggests that She is associated with harvests and the fruits of the earth. As for the horses, She was depicted riding them side saddled. Which doesn’t suggest a Dêuâ of horse riding, but She was in fact worshipped by cavalry. This carries notions of being a Dêuâ of war.

She was also depicted with a key, suggesting an inclination toward domestic functions as well. Here we have a complex, multi faceted Dêuâ. Of horses, war, harvest, and the home. A couple of interesting offerings to Her in the past were roses, and a cauldron. Which furthers Her domestic associations.

With many burials we also see remains of horses or of horse drawn vehicles. This means She was possibly associated with the function of a psychopomp. This also suggests, if related to cavalry, that She may have also been one to lead a spectral ride, perhaps similar to a Wild Hunt. This usually takes place in the winter in most cultures.

When Gaul fell, Eponâ occupied a unique position of being the subject of Roman worship as well, with a feast day of 18 December, Eponalia. It seems that worship of Her is sometimes related to the time of the middle of winter, which back them would have been thought of as near the winter solstice. It is possible, at least as far as my gnosis goes, that She also gives birth to a child around this time. As midwinter times seem to be a time of celebrating Her, that child may have some kind of solar relation.

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Gobannos

His name is related to a word for “blacksmith”. As such, He’s a Dêuos of smithing, crafting, and of smiths. Known from a zinc tablet in Switzerland, which notes of Him as one who travels, it implies that He perhaps learned, and at least distributed and used His skills widely. Smiths, especially in the past shaped pieces of metal into things people needed and wanted. Putting Him among Dêuoi who helped shape society and culture as much as He shaped metal.

A piece of lore in BNG is that He fashions a spear for Lugus to rescue His beloved Rosmertâ. As such having His îuos (holiday) Cerdalitus, just before Cintumessus when Lugus succeeds in that rescue. Done thanks to the assistance of Gobannos.

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Grannos

His name is thought to mean “bearded”, and he is associated with hot springs. An epithet for him historically (at Monthelon) is Amarcolitanus meaning something like “far (reaching) sight”. Like his sight, the reach of his worship was quite far. Governing hot springs, it is safe to say that he is a healer.

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Lugus

There are a few potential meanings for His name. Lugus is thought to be the mysterious “Gaulish Mercury”. This is for the reason that Caesar states that Mercury was the most revered being, of course not literally Mercury but a Dêuos likened to Him. He said that this being was a patron of trade, protector of travelers and the inventor of arts.

This lead scholars to liken Lugus to Irish Lugh, who is said to be skilled in all arts. Lugus is not Lugh, but They both seem to share this trait and linguistic relation. There are also other Dêuoi likened to Mercury, so Lugus is not the only one, but it seems fair to assume Him among Them.

His symbology includes spears, ravens, roosters, bags of coin, and being depicted with three faces. Here we can interpret that He is proud and skilled in war, familiar with death, looking in multiple directions, probably in guard, and a patron of wealth and prosperity.

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Maponos

His name has to do with the word Mapos, which means “son, young boy”. In Gallo-Roman times, He was likened to Apollo. So we see a connection to youthfulness, and a solar connection. Though not a sun Dêuos. He is depicted with a harp on a relief in Northern Britain which is another interesting Apollo connection. With His connection not only to light and youthfulness, but also to music. An Apollo connection could also suggest a connection to healing.

In Gaul, He is invoked on a magic tablet, a defixione, in which the words of a spell are inscribed upon it. Suggesting that He has connections to magic as well. So here we have a Dêuos associated with sunlight, healing, music, and magic. Gnosis-wise, we suspect He was born in the winter and as Eponâ is also venerated at the time, maybe She is His mother? This would certainly be a break from Maponos’s Welsh cognate of Mabon who is the son of Modron, in Gaulish Matrona.

It is theorized by some that Oengus Mac Og is related in a way to Maponos, His mother is Boann, so we see at least some variation in the mothers of deities of this kind. A supporting argument we offer for this gnosis is that horses have been known to have a solar connection, and if Eponâ is venerated near a solar event, that event may be related to Maponos, who by comparison to Apollo has solar traits.

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Materês

Their names meaning “Mothers”, based on an early Gallo-Greek inscription. Related, a Matronâ worshipped as the Dêuâ of the Marne River in France. It is unknown if She is a singular form of these Mother Dêuâs or a different Dêuâ entirely, but to be safe, we will assume She is distinct. As all of these Mother Dêuâs are distinct from one another. Often tied into very specific tribes, but also one or many nations. So we have a very broad spectrum when it comes to these Dêuâs.

Materês were worshipped from Spain to Germany, and from the Netherlands to Northern Italy, also in Britain. The first inscriptions we see are from Northern Italy in the 1st century CE. Does this mean this is when this worship started or where? Though this was a Romanised part of Gaul, worship of Them seems spread along the lines of Gaul, Britain, and along the Rhine. As opposed to being common in Rome.

Romans in these places worshipped Them too, of course, but it’s not really known if they had anything to do with Their worship at its foundation. We just know it was spread all over Gaul. They governed many things, often fertility, rivers, and families. However, so much more. They were involved in war, and many other things. They were depicted with fruits, grains, children, dogs, with hair covered and uncovered. As well as with pigs. Perhaps receiving sacrifice.

Of note, They were in some theories thought to govern fate. Which, for those looking, it could shed some light on a Gaulish version of the women of fates and destinies. Like the Scandinavian Norns, Roman Parcæ, and Greek Fates. In Bessus Nouiogalation, this is an important function of our Materês.

Their cultus was widespread and for all manner of purpose. They governed all manner of things.

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Nantosueltâ

Her name has a few possible meanings. Xavier Delamarre gives “sun warmed valley”. She has been depicted holding a house on a pole, with beehives, and with a crow or raven, under a depiction of the sun. Which show suggestions of a few things within which She may be involved. Such as prosperity granted to us by Her, who holds the gifts of the earth.

The house gives a couple of possibilities to us. It could either be some kind bird house, or meant to be an actual house showing perhaps Her supporting the home, perhaps from below, giving Her a chthonic quality. The carrion bird, a raven or crow perhaps relating to death. This gives the impression of a Dêuâ involved with both prosperity in life, and machinations of death.

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Nemetonâ

Her name has to do with nemetons, which are of course places of worship, and famously the sacred groves in which the Ancient Gauls worshipped. In BNG she is invoked at the setup of a uentâ, or space in which rites are performed. She was named for Victoria, in Eisenberg, in what is now Germany. Popular with the Treveri people, one of whom even put up an altar to her while in Britain.

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Ogmios

The meaning of His name is uncertain. Xavier Delamarre gives “guide, path”, and somewhere else (memory fails) “conductor” was suggested. These have to do with the belief that He is one who leads souls to the afterlife. Allegedly by binding them with His speech. It is said that those who went with Him did so gladly. It is also said that Ogmios was likened to Hercules. However, that it is the strength of His words that held the greatest power.

He is also, according to Jean-Louis Brunaux in ‘Les Gaulois: vérités et légendes’ speaks of Ogmios, being likened to Hercules as being an ancestor of the Gauls as a whole. This happens around the time of interaction with the Greeks which led to a rapid increase in infrastructure. A time when the Gauls begin to see themselves as Gauls. Though regional identities were usually stronger. (A factor in their tragic downfall.)

He was depicted as an older man, with sun darkened skin. Jean-Loius Brunaux adds that He was said to have had in His retinue people of many nations. This has led to that being gnosis, if not what literally was the case, fleshing out an otherwise not as well known Dêuos. Along with this, from Ralph Hausseler in ‘From Tomb to Temple: the Role of Hero Cults in Local Religion in Gaul and Britain During the Iron Age and Roman Period’, he mentions Ogmios as ancestor of the Gauls. This gives Ogmios a preeminent position among Dêuoi in BNG.

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Rosmertâ

Her name is thought to mean “Great Provider”. She is depicted with fruits, a cornucopia, as well as with coins and an offering bowl. It is clear that She is a Dêuâ of the wealth of the land. The abundance of the fruits of harvest and wealth perhaps that those fruits can provide.

Interestingly, She is depicted alongside Mercury, and this leads many to consider Her to be paired with Lugus. This is a reasonable assumption, and with Lugus being a Dêuos of skills and wealth, Rosmertâ is a source for those things by holding the wealth of the land, from which all things come.

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Rudiobus

His name likely has to do with the colour red. The one inscription we have of him is on a bronze horse and so we have come to see him as a Dêuos of war and cavalry. But also of knights and horse training. This inscription was found at Neuvy-En-Sullia, in the territory of the Carnutians.

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Sucellos

His name is thought to mean either “kind” or “good striker”. He is depicted with a big mallet and sometimes a cup. He is thought to be associated at the least with wine growing and agriculture. He has also been depicted wearing a wolf pelt.

He was compared to Silvanus, who is associated with woods and forests. Sucellos is sometimes depicted like Etruscan Charon, and is also seen accompanied by a dog. If we take a look at the comparison with Charon, we see chthonic associations. As Charon ferried souls to the world of the dead.

His large mallet also suggests He is associated with boundaries, as the mallet looks like something that drives in fenceposts. Also giving a strong sense of agriculture and maintenance of the fields and farms. Thus also a shaper of the gifts of the earth. He is also depicted alongside Nantosueltâ.

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Suleuiâ(s)

She is spoken of in either triplicates or singularly. Her name is thought to mean “good guide”. Compared to the Roman Junones (feminine guardian spirits), and sometimes the Matronæ, or Materês — of Gaulish, Germanic, and Roman fame. Though sometimes, the Matres and Suleuiâs were invoked together. So we can see that the boundary between the two kinds of Dêuâs or spirits was not always clear.

Suleuiâ or Suleuiâs are Dêuâs of people, but in an important functional context — places, especially homes. Now it may have in the past been tribal or regional Suleuiâs that were more relevant. In a modern context, one is likely the only Galatis in the area. As such, the Suleuiâ is a protector, of one’s home and of one’s person.

Something to think about when we light our uandalâs (candles) to the guardians of our homes or selves. As They are a very special kind of spirit. Also, as groups have Suleuiâs, Bessus Nouiogalation does as well.

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Taranis

Here, with Taranis (in dedication of all the work here that Nellos does) there is more known. Or at least ideas of Him are a bit easier to flesh out in comparison to other Dêuoi. His name means “Thunder” or “Thunderer”. Which is agreed upon by every expert that at least we are aware. His name underlines with what He is most associated: thunder, storms, lightning, rain.

He is often outright depicted wielding either a literal thunderbolt, especially in Gallo-Roman times, or a club or staff. Both of which are striking weapons. This aligns well with lightning. In Britain, a Dêuos holding a crooked club with a wheel beside Him is depicted. Bringing us to His most enigmatic symbol: the wheel. Wheels are depicted in His place more than any image of Him. Wheels are found with or alongside inscriptions bearing His name, so we can safely attribute wheels as a symbol of Him.

The club, staff, weapon is a more clearly understood symbol. The wheel is more mysterious. There are many theories. Some are as simple as an analogy of “rolling thunder”. Others as deep as the rotation of the skies, which puts Him up to be a Dêuos of the sky, and not just storms. With that association, He can be assumed to also be associated with the general upholding of truth and order. On Jupiter columns (He is most associated with Jupiter, surprise) an uncommon depiction of Jupiter on horseback, which Jupiter is not depicted with, are often found along the Rhine. Which ran through Gaulish lands. Under these Jupiters is a serpent or monster being trodden upon.

It is quite common for thunder deities to be slayers of serpents and monsters. Taranis appears to be no exception. So, we have a great sky and thunder Dêuos who upholds truth and slays cosmic enemies. However, He isn’t all about death and destruction. After all, He is slaying things that are a threat. Storms also bring rain, which gives life and feeds the land. Lightning is beneficial to soil as well. And so it is fair to see Him as just as much a Dêuos who gives life. With winds that come with storms, breath.

We offer the interwoven facts and gnosis here. It also warrants mentioning that wheels have been seen on urns. This means He probably has a function in death. Also, wielding lightning comes with fire, which both purifies and sanctifies. As with other Dêuoi, we see a great and complex Dêuos.

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Toutatis

Taken to mean “of the people”. Like Suleuiâs, Toutatîs seem to be a kind of Dêuos. The difference is that there is no record of Them being invoked in triplicate or multiples, but it seems to be the thought that there was one per tribe, that each one had a Toutatis. A Toutatis is considered a protector of the tribe, and were normally likened with the Roman Mars.

With this being the case, and though we stress caution when making assumptions — it would not be surprising to me if many Mars likened Gaulish war Dêuoi couldn’t easily fall under this category. Such as Camulos, Caturix, Rudianos, Smertrios, etc. These Dêuoi are of course distinct and are not “different faces of one” or anything of the kind. They are known for being Dêuoi of war, but also of healing and fertility.

As any group could have a Toutatis, Bessus Nouiogalation does as well. Our Toutatis is Galatos, in our bessus, a son of Ogmios.

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Uesunnâ

Her name is thought to mean “She who is good/worthy”. She’s shown with a cornucopia, and is named for the Roman Dea Tutela, on an inscription found in Périgueux. With the cornucopia, we associate her with grace and a good toncnaman (destiny, fate, that which is sworn). In BNG we sometimes say “Uesunnâ cantitê!”, which approximates “Good luck!”.


All of this just scratches the surface. There are many more Dêuoi that were worshipped by the Gauls. Many more worshipped by Galatîs today. However, as there are many places to find information, and many conclusions to be drawn as well as new gnosis appearing to folks constantly, we felt a brief introduction was appropriate.

We find it best to not say too much so that you can find your own way through the infinite mysteries that are the Dêuoi, because no one person — ourselves or anyone else can ever tell you all that can be known about Them.

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Cingos Ammanês (Calendar)

Gaulish Polytheism, Coligny Calendar

The Sequanni, or Coligny Calendar (used interchangeably) is a parapegma, that is, a bronze calendar with peg holes in it that marked each day. It was discovered in 1897 in Coligny, Ain, France. It is thought to date to the 2nd century CE. Almost everything about the calendar is hotly debated. Some theories are more popular than others, and perhaps we will never all agree. However, there are some context clues from what little can be reasonably assumed about the calendar, and a workable model will be presented.

With that said, let’s explore a little on the matters of timekeeping that we know. Caesar mentions that the Gaulish people considered the day to start at sundown. This isn’t really unusual, the Jewish people reckon the same with their own calendar, for example. Thus the reason their sabbaths start on Friday night. Considering that where they lived at the time of the Gauls were some distance away from the Gauls, starting the day at sundown was not at all uncommon in the ancient world.

Caesar didn’t likely gain anything from making mention of this, and so it is likely a truthful observation. The history of issues (to put it lightly) between Gauls and Romans were certainly not because of their differing approaches to calendars. With that said, we can safely wager that the day begins at sunset.

All the Gauls assert that they are descended from the god Dis, and say that this tradition has been handed down by the Druids. For that reason they compute the divisions of every season, not by the number of days, but of nights; they keep birthdays and the beginnings of months and years in such an order that the day follows the night.

Julius Caesar in The Gallic Wars states (Caesar, DBG 6.18)

We also have a mention of timekeeping in Gaul by Pliny the Elder.

The mistletoe, however, is but rarely found upon the robur; and when found, is gathered with rites replete with religious awe. This is done more particularly on the fifth day of the moon, the day which is the beginning of their months and years, as also of their ages, which, with them, are but thirty years. This day they select because the moon, though not yet in the middle of her course, has already considerable power and influence; and they call her by a name which signifies, in their language, the all-healing.

Pliny Natural History 16.95

Over The Moons

The months have either 30 or 29 days. 30 day months are noted Matis (MAT), the 29 day months Anmatis (ANM). In this respect, we cannot help but notice that the Attic Calendar, used by ancient Athenians, marks months as “full and “hollow”. It is worth noting that Greek culture was prestigious to the Gauls, especially before their fall to the Romans. Sequanni territory was not very far from the Greek colony of Massalia, and it wouldn’t be surprising if the Greeks had some influence on the Sequanni Calendar. This isn’t to say that the ancient Gauls weren’t already using a lunisolar calendar as it were. Which the Sequanni Calendar certainly is.

A lunisolar calendar attempts to reconcile the lunar months with the solar year. This is a relatively old style of timekeeping. Though purely lunar calendars like the Islamic Calendar do exist. Then, of course, the modern calendar, which gets its start in Rome, who weren’t about lunar months, apparently. They were more interested in the solar year. Now, back to Gaul, where the Sun and Moon must agree, at least somewhat. Most of the time, the Sequanni Calendar has twelve months, the first and third year in a five year cycle have thirteen. The first month is Samonios, something that is not debated.

The months start at the first quarter moon. This is an easy moon phase to spot, and it accents the binary fortnight division explained earlier. This centers the full and new moons in each fortnight, half month.

We offer “Areambicatû”, or “The years ahead of Ambicatus” as a term to date years. Starting roughly during the reign of Ambicatus, a legendary king. Before those years, Senamman “Ancient Time”. As opposed to BCE and CE or BC and AD. The app we use (from Ucetion) provides the current year. This work (from Helen Mckay) helps with notations.

The Months

At the most basic, and we’ll get to intercalary months in a minute, the months are as such, with rough Gregorian equivalents:

  • Samonios (May-June)
  • Dumannios (June-July)
  • Riuros (July-August)
  • Anagantios (August-September)
  • Ogronios (September-October)
  • Cutios (October-November)
  • Giamonios (November-December)
  • Simiuisonna (December-January)
  • Equos (January-February)
  • Elembiuos (February-March)
  • Edrinios (March-April)
  • Cantlos (April-May)

These are your basic twelve months in order. So, what about those intercalary months? We are less certain. Quimonios (the end of the first segment of the calendar as “QVIMON”) and Rantaranos  (the “r” is speculative, but “ANTARAN” is read from the fifth line of the 32nd month) are the two intercalary months inserted to even out a five year cycle. Before Samonios and Giamonios respectively.

It’s hard to say what many of the months mean. The foundation of most versions is what they believe the month of Samonios means.  Whether it means “summer” or the end of summer. The latter of which is what leads some to believe Samonios is cognate to Samhain. Some believe Samonios means something like “assembly, gathering”.

However, the frame of reference we use to build a conclusion is not Samonios, but Giamonios. Which has less controversy around it, and is agreed upon to mean something related to “winter”. To our knowledge, no one claims it means “winter’s end”. A poor choice then for a summer month. Buttressed by the infix -on- that is seen in many deity names taken to mean “great, divine”.

Therefore, here the calendar starts in the summer. This is not unheard of, as the Attic Calendar, one of many in Ancient Greece, also started in the summer. The Greeks being a big influence on the Gauls makes this essentially unsurprising.

Usage

As stated before, the month starts at the first quarter moon. This means the third denotes the halfway point of the month. We see on the calendar “ATENOUX”, meaning “renewal, return”. Also, appearing in a half circle, like the first quarter fits the binary division of the month. “Light” and “Dark” halves.

Matis months have 30 days. Anmatis months have 29 days. The first half month is always 15 days, the second is either 15 or 14 days. The month of Equos alternates in days. Can be 30 or 29. This is of course an attempt to keep the calendar in a lunisolar harmony.

The Coligny Calendar operates in 5 year cycles. This is regardless of the 25, 30, or proposed 19 year Metonic cycle. The last only differs in that one intercalary year is dropped in the last 5 year cycle, taking it down to 4 years.

Why use a Metonic model? This is because changes were already thought to have been made to the calendar. The Coligny Calendar could well have been one. It would have taken very little effort to make one from where the calendar during its time of use. A Metonic cycle is an extremely accurate model that works perpetually. In other words, it’s an attempt to save future generations the trouble of having to make changes to one of the other models. This will make tracking and cataloguing history easier. Making this not only a liturgical, but practical option. A full, all purpose calendar. This also allows for history to be recorded.

Year 1 has the month Quimonios starting the year, then the normal 12 months. Year 3 has Rantaranos before Giamonios, thus the 7th of 13 months in that year. The second, fourth and fifth year are 12 month years. This 5 year cycle happens three times. The fourth time, Year 1 is dropped, making it a grand cycle of 19 years, then the calendar starts over again. Every 61 years, one day is dropped from Equos on the 5th year. If someone had a replica plaque, they’d never have to change it. They’d simply cover up the first year of the fourth cycle.

On 8 May, 2022, the next start of the 19 year cycle will begin. Which means, at the time of writing, we’re on the last part of the current one, that which is only four years. Even if you aren’t using the app, you’ll know when a month begins, as it will be the first quarter moon.

At the date of writing, (11 December, 2019), we are in the month of Giamonios. It started on 4 December. This means you can use the normal 12 months until then to know what months come next.

Here is the app again. Check the day, and keep your eyes on the moon!

For the big picture, check this full reconstruction done by Helen Mckay.

Continue reading “Cingos Ammanês (Calendar)”

Mapats Leuci (Child of Light)

Mapats Leuci

Written By Suturcos

Cenos eiânt noxtiâ eni scâtê

Lanolucrâ uotigû Cintugiamos

Aros rerine dagodagrus

Mapað Leuci gentos essi

Taranis, sueios atîr nertos

Eponâ, sueios matîr canis

Taranis garti dû litou mârou

Dedosseîs sueios taruos uerouos

Ollon dalton eni sin Giamolitû

Beton etic otlon daltar

Cantlâ bûar cecanon

Textâ bûar eiorar

Litus urexti ollon loudos

Ollon iâssont eni sounomâros

Sindâ noxtiâ dunnoisanâ bledniâs

Mapað Leuci robudi cintus

Cenos areollonîs rexti

Braxtiîs, sioxti clutos ne senti

Sioxti sin bûe ne gnâtomapað

Siuomeiîs, brodinâssetîs

Uescâssetîs eni braccâbi urê

Exitâsset eni angnatê

Eni baregiê, Eponâ dîsunâsset

Rumelumâros tetroxtesî

Gegalesî do datlan dâmin

Gênion carnucos cucluoe

Gartisî ueranadoi uarinâ

Exalbiû Eponâ uâdesî

Ueranadoi etic anatiâ

Eni remanni sebraci

Uo do bitun itâssont

Sulabarâtoi senti dagrun

Ion eiâ uer râdar

Sioxti uai do baitin

Sosin sistât eni mantalê

Nâ eiâ axâtoi senti

Matos rodîont adbertâs

Melissiâ isse crampettâs

Dede eni noxtiê essi ueramos

Exteges do tegos sioxon

Beborbon, delxtiiâ nertos

Sioxti, mapað ne arenxti

Cecangon do mâroambin

Adsodîssont dû atrê ambi

Carnoi uer pennû sueionos

Extos adbertâ bîeto rodîsset

Ma buet sindos nepos taraset

Eponâ rodîsset sueionâ torcos

Gegandesî taret

Do allocomarin

Eni Dubnê iâssetsî

Bitus alios bûe exougresî

Sioxti appîsssetsî agedos

Agedos sindos gignesî

Temellâsset cennâ canta sonnû

Sueionos dâmâ couîros

Extoutâs elus au bitû

Sueionos uoxtloi delxtînt

Consinoi extabatî do cloustâs

Amarcos dagos dû Eponî

Uidreîs sentus do Mapaten Leuci

Celicnon Sucelli, giamotegos eni Dubnê

Trê magin Riganiâs Nantosueltiâs

Comarciatâ au anderobi cuclouar

Tetarar magoi cadroâcoi

Blandos bûe mantalâ

Arnxton ad celicnû Sucelli

Ueuritareiâ canta Sucellin

Eponâ adgarti sueionâ uindomapos

Iaccolauenos bûe

Bruttos dû delgû

Sulâmis iâi tegos

Sucellos delget soldurios

Nantosueltâ memode mapatê

Eponâ gigne dligiton dlixti

Nantosueltâ rodît uercon

Eponâ uâde dâmâmâros

Nu gneatsî ara olloblêdnî

Sucellos tagi sin uercon

Nu natiâ anarencon tigû

Arenxont mantalon do tegos

Con Ogmios uednis

Eponâ ambisî tetige

Uer cenomantalû do Albiin

Uer trogî sueionâ

Taranis dîsunâssetîs

Ion Eponâ dede mapos do legion

Dîâcus au sounû

Anboudicos autrâtu

Iâsset do sueionos mapin

Rodîssont anuan Maponos

Etic Taranis memande

Maponos sounît leiûs îs

Mapats Leuci (Child of Light) English

Long were the nights in shadow

The full moon after Cintugiamos

Frost touched the good earth

The Child of Light was born

Taranis, His strong father

Eponâ, His fair mother

Taranis called for a great feast

He prepared His best bull

All shared in this WInter Feast

Food and drink were shared

Songs were sung

Gifts were given

The feast made them weary

All went into a great sleep

Those darkest nights of the year

The Child of Light awoke first

Long before all, He rose

He cried, but none heard

But this was no normal child

He walked, He talked

He dressed in a garb of green

He went into the unknown

In the morning, Eponâ awoke

Great horror overcame Her

She called to assembly a retinue

The roar of the carnyx was heard

She called the celestial troop

Out of Albios, Eponâ led

Celestial beings and spirits

In a spectral ride

Downward to Bitus they went

They blessed the earth

Over wherever they rode

But woe to the fool

That stands in Their path

Lest they be taken away

The wise give offerings

Sweet cakes or pancakes

Left in the night, it is best

From house to house they searched

They were fed, they kept strength

However, the Child was not found

They advanced to the Great River

They stopped for the Father of the River

Antlers upon His head

But offering must be given

If it is that one is to pass

Eponâ gave Her torc

She was allowed to pass

To the other place

Into Dubnos She went

A strange world it was She entered

However, She saw a face

It was a face that She knew

Darkened skin by the sun

His loyal retinue

From the many nations of the world

His words they held

As chains from tongue to ears

A good sight for Eponâ

He knew the way to the Child of Light

The Hall of Sucellos, the winter home in Dubnos

Through the fields of Queen Nantosueltâ

Greetings from chthonic beings were heard

They passed wonderous fields

Smooth were the roads

They arrived at the hall of Sucellos

They were met by Him

Eponâ claimed Her beloved Son

He was safe and healthy

Eager for embrace

Ready to go home

Sucellos kept watch

Nantosueltâ took care of the child

Eponâ knew a debt was owed

Nantosueltâ gave a task

Eponâ led a great retinue

Now She would do this every year

Sucellos agreed to the task

Now the lost souls

Could find their way home

With Ogmios guiding

Eponâ departed

Upon the long road to Albios

Upon Her return

Taranis awoke

When Eponâ put the Son to bed

Sluggish from sleep

Unaware of the journey

Went to His Son

They gave the name Maponos

And Taranis thought

Maponos slept longer than He

Tegobessus I: Sacred Space

Choose a place in which to do Dugiion, that is worship in your home. If you live in a fancy and/or very rustic establishment, you might already have something like a hearth. Odds are, you don’t. In that case, simply use a good surface as an Uentâ, or place of offering/sacrifice. This place will be the focal point of your Tegobessus (House Custom).

Place relevant stuff on it. At minimum, a candle and a bowl. Images or symbols of Dêuoi are all the better! Added dishes for offerings are fine too. Optimally, you’ll want this to face Ari (East). If not Ari, then try Dexouâ (South). If it has to face Eri (West) or Tutos (North), so be it. While East is optimal, something is better than nothing.

Now, what to put upon this Uentâ? At bare minimum you’ll need a Cumbâ (Bowl, also means “valley”, but is not pertinent to this) and a Dagilâ (candle). Whether or not it’s electric isn’t a big deal. But these are the bare minimums. The Cumbâ to hold the Addatus (offering), the Dagilâ for the Aidû (flame), of course.

Of course, many will want to add Deluâs (images) of various Dêuoi (Worshipped Beings). Or symbols: A Rotos (wheel) for Taranis, an Epos (horse) related symbol for Eponâ, and so on. These certainly add character and help focus attention in a ritual on the deuos in question.

We have the why and how. Now for the when:

Planning rites are essential. Try to do them on a regular basis. The point is not to be perfect but to make an attempt at regularity. Do your best, but don’t beat yourself up over not being perfect. Just make it a goal to do the rites on a regular basis. This will allow for a rhythm to your rituals.

There are plenty of intervals on which one might choose to do rites. They could be done daily, weekly, bi-monthly, but at minimum once a month. Another suggestion is moon phases.

One of the most important things to do before a Rite is that of Glanosâgon (Purification). That means making yourself clean and ritually pure. To do this, you may wish to bathe or shower before ritual. At the least it is important to wash the hands and face. As the Gauls were known for using soap, some kind of bar soap would be a nice continuation of that tradition.

Wash hands and say: Glanolamâs “Clean hands”
Swipe your forehead and say:  Glanobritus “Clean mind”
Swipe down the face with both hands and say: Glananation “Clean soul” (This is based on the idea of the soul residing in the head.)

Purify the sacred space

One must purify the sacred space. To do this, we will invoke Nemetonâ. This is vital to establish your space or making a new one.
We will use Juniper as this was used by the Senogalatis to clear away snakes and to help with bits from poisonous creatures. So we will use it to clear away any unwanted energies in our space.
You will now need a Dagilâ (Candle) to represent Aidona.

Light your Juniper and walk around your area or make a motion around your area in a sunwise circle three times to represent the three realms of Drus (AlbiosBitus, and Dubnos). As you do this, say the below invocation.

Uediumii Nemetonan
(I invoke Nemetonâ)

Donâ anton
(Lady of the Borders)

Uernâ caddî
(Guardian of the Sacred)

Delgaunâ Marâ
(The Great Keeper)

Rodâi caddiâ uentân, etic aneges urittoduscaxslâ
(You give sacredness to the offering space, and you protect against bad spirits)

Rodâmî addatus etic bratun te
(We give offering and thanks to you)

[Addatus – Offering]

Arciumî sinuenti bîeto uregetor caddos io
(I ask that this place be made sacred)

Slanon te
(Cheer to you)

Bratun te
(Thanks to you)

Molâmî Nemetoni
(I praise Nemetonâ)

Uregar
(It is done)

Welcoming Aidona

Aidonâ is the name we give to the spirit of the fire; basically, the hearth personified. We are introducing Aidonâ into our space for the first time so this is a very important step for us.

After the invocation, say
Oibelumî (Oibelomos) sinaidû Aidoniâs.
I light (We light) this flame of Aidonâ.

Say some words welcoming Aidonâ
This is very personal and needs to come from you.

[Addatus – Offering]
After the offering, take a few moments to kneel, bow, or sit and commune with the recipient(s)

Bratûn te,
Aidonan

(Thanks to you,
Aidonâ)


Take a moment of Tauson (Silence).


Andegenton (Creation)

Written By Suturcos

Pad bûe arepan sinbitus? Eðði ne uidrar.

Extos bitus bûe gentos in ueglê.

Etic exbrissû leuci bitus logitos eðði!

Tenos etic dubron segon uregont neglâ.

Anciuogi endo taruos etic bousc.

Duî bûar mâros etic nertos.

Bous sueiâ anuan bûe Bouindâ.

Bebortisî exneglî.

Bûesî lanos blixtuos.

Taruos sueios anuan bûe Uindotaruos.

Bebortiîs blixtuos Bouindiâs.

Bûeîs lanos segos.

Bouindâ bebortisî ara leius neglî.

Etic Uindotaruos rodasset satos Bouindin.

Duî mapates bûar gentos.

Oinos mapað bûe gentos exuambî.

Sueiâ anuan bûe Litauiâ.

Bûesî uimpis etic letanâ.

Oinos mapað bûe gentos exanatlâ.

Sueios anuan bûe Dêiuos.

Bûeîs nertos etic axros.

Bûeîs Uindotaruos lauenos.

Coni îs adpipise ne comarionîsio.

Etic suâ îs urexti tremnâ.

Îs nexet do îs nouioueniî.

Etic roditîs lanocarbos.

Sueios adbertos ossimios.

Ion Dêiuos bûe aissi.

Bûeîs do orxtet Uinodtaruos.

Suâ bûe labarâtar.

Ponc amman aditâssetîs gegniie.

Tetaraueîs, axiîs, etic darnâssetîs!

Uindotaruos câde do sueios basson.

Dêiuos cecate pennos Uindotarui.

Sueios pennos bebue Sonnos.

Sueios dacruâ bebue ðirâs.

Litauiâ gabâsset crouos Uindotarui.

Urextetsî lucaton dubnos.

Etic Drus aucambnocnamis Uindotarui.

Exdrus câde satoi entra lucaton.

Sindos satoi tumîssont eni lucatê.

Adaxti tumon nouiobiuotus!

Senti Anadeuîs, senti Cauaroi.

Eiâ ueuason cicâ Uindotarui.

Eiâ tumîssont abrobalcos.

Dêiuos etic Litauiâ semiti tumîssont.

Cuprinnon ies urextont leius mapates.

Cintamos sindi bûar tri brateres.

Centubrater bûe ratos etic carâtacos.

Allobrater bûe nertos etic matis.

Tritobrater bûe pennosenos etic lugos.

Cauaroi negegniiar sudeaxtos sinueniâ.

Ies urextont agron uritto ollon.

Agron cena anton con mapatobi Dêiui.

Cicâ Uindotarui bûe adgossû ueuase.

Eni biccocomariê, ollon nâuaont.

Cauaroi baniînt etic uasînt mapates Dêiui.

Litauiâ urextet cagron eni aremertê.

Exo ueniâ ne uassont ci do aiuî.

Bouindâ gigne gegniie neððamos.

Bouindâ adberti suesi uenin.

Benontîeiî etic urexont Bitus.

Contrummocradiobi, ies gegniiar sin.

Centubrater beii uer pennos sueiâ.

Allobrater gabâsset anatlâ sueiâ.

Tritobrater sceciie carbos sueiâ.

Canti gabâssont pettiâs sueiâ.

Etic urextont sinbitus excarbos.

Sinmârosueliâ essid Andegenton.

Tribrateres rodîssont Litauian.

Rodîssontiis cicâ Bouindiâs.

Sincicâ texti sueionos matîr.

Tribrateres rodîssont Dêiuos.

Rodîssontiis anatlâ Bouindiâs.

Dêiuos urextet sin sueios tegos.

Tri gabâssont pennos Bouindiâs.

Cecatoniis pennos arduos.

Pennos Bouindiâs bebue lucrâ.

Cruuon Bouindiâs bebue morîa.

Blixtos Bouindiâs bebue abonâs.

Elus cauaroi bâditos buont.

Cnamîs Bouindiâs bebue monedîs.

Dantâ Bouindiâs bebue magnîs.

Uoltoi Bouindiâs bebue caitoi.

Elus biuotoues bebane exbouindî.

Etic leius exsenolucatû Uindotarui.

Nu rerine comariâ iaont.

Satoi exlucaton beube êscoi.

Rioêscoi bebue craxantoi.

Riocraxantoi bebue natriges.

Rionatriges bebue atares.

Allonatriges bebue mîliâ.

Biuotus tumîsset inammani.

Ollon andederciâ centuuenîas Dêuion.

Cauaroi etic Dêuoi sindiun catus.

Tribrateres gabâsset sueionos comariâ.

Centubrater gabâsset Dumnos.

Allobrater gabâsset Albios.

Tritobrater gabâsset Bitus.

Andegenton (Creation) English Translation

What was before this world? It is not known.

But the world was born in darkness.

And in a burst of light the world set forth!

Fire and water came together to form mist.

Coming from that mist, (a) cow and (a) bull.

(The) two were great and strong.

(The) cow, her name was Bouindâ.

She fed on mists.

She was full (of) milk.

(The) bull, his name was Uindotaruos.

He fed upon (the) milk (of) Bouindâ.

He was full (of) strength.

Bouindâ fed on more mist.

And Uindotaruos gave His seed to Her.

Two children were born.

One child was born from the womb.

Her name was Litauiâ.

She was pretty and broad.

One child was born from breath.

His name was Dêiuos.

He was strong and tall.

(Hence they aren’t technically related.)

Uindotaruos, He was glad.

Though He saw no place for Him(self anymore).

And so He made a plan.

He would die for His new family.

And give His full body.

His final offering.

When Dêiuos was (of) age.

He was (to) kill Uindotaruos.

So it was spoken.

When (the) time approached, He did.

He struck, He strangled, He tore (Uindotaruos)!

Uindotaruos fell (to) His death.

Dêiuos threw (the) head (of) Uindotaruos.

His head became (the) sun.

His tears became (the) stars.

Litauiâ took the blood (of) Uindotaruos.

She made a deep well.

And Drus (the world tree) from the backbone (of) Uindotaruos.

From Drus, seeds fell into (the) well.

These seeds grew in (the) well.

Setting in motion new life!

They are (the) Ungods, they are (the) Cauaroi (giants).

They fed on (the) flesh (of) Uindotaruos.

They grew very powerful.

Dêiuos and Litauiâ also grew.

Conjoined, They made many children.

Foremost of These were three brothers.

(The) first brother was kind and generous.

(The) second brother was strong and good.

(The) third brother was wise beyond His years and cunning.

(The) Cauaroi did not welcome this new family.

They made war against all.

War without end against (the) children (of) Dêiuos.

(The) flesh (of) Unidotaruos had been almost consumed.

In (the) little place, all would hunger.

(The) Cauaroi would (then) come (for the) children (of) Dêiuos.

Litauiâ made (a) fort in preparation.

But (the) family could not stay (there) forever.

Bouindâ knew (what had) to be done next.

Bouindâ offered Herself (to the) family.

They would tear Her apart (to) make (the) world (as it is now).

With heavy hearts, They did this.

(The) first brother struck Her upon Her head.

(The) second brother took Her breath.

(The) third brother cut open Her body.

Together They took the pieces (of) Her.

They made this world out of Her body.

This great wonder that is creation.

(The) three brothers gave (to) Litauiâ.

They gave Her (the) flesh (of) Bouindâ.

This flesh covered Their Mother.

(The) three brothers gave to Dêiuos.

They gave Him (the) breath (of) Bouindâ.

Dêiuos made this His home.

(The) three took (the) skull (of) Bouindâ.

They threw (the) skull high.

(The) skull (of) Bouindâ became (the) moon.

(The) blood (of) Bouindâ became (the) seas.

(The) milk (of) Bouindâ became (the) rivers.

Many (of the) Cauaroi had drowned.

(The) bones (of) Bouindâ made (the) mountains.

(The) teeth (of) Bouindâ made (the) stones.

(The) hair (of) Bouindâ made (the) forests.

Many lives came (from) Bouindâ.

And more (still from the) old well (of) Uindotaruos.

Now (as) they had (a) place to go.

Seeds from (the) well became fish.

Some fish became toads (amphibians).

Some toads became snakes (reptiles).

Some snakes became birds.

Other snakes became animals (mammals).

Life grew in time.

All under (the) eyes (of) this first family (of) Dêuion.

Cauaroi and Dêuîs to this day fight.

(The) three brothers took their own places.

(The) first brother took Dumnos.

(The) second brother took Albios.

(The) third brother took Bitus.